Shanker Blog https://www.shankerinstitute.org/ en What Teachers Say About Literacy https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/what-teachers-say-about-literacy <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Teachers Say About Literacy</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/154" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">mdicarlo</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 22, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>There is no denying the impact that literacy has on everyday life. Literacy skills allow us to seek out information, explore subjects in-depth, and gain a deeper understanding of the world around us (<a href="https://educationonline.ku.edu/community/teaching-reading-and-writing-skills"><span>The University of Kansas</span></a>, 2021). Given the importance of literacy, a teacher’s role not only plays a fundamental part in a child's education but also their well-being. To understand what drives a teacher’s pedagogical approaches, two recent surveys from EdWeek and The International Literacy Association (ILA) have attempted to capture how teacher practices, experiences, and knowledge shape their literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In fall of 2019, the <a href="https://www.edweek.org/research-center/research-center-reports/early-reading-instruction-results-of-a-national-survey"><span>EdWeek Research Center</span></a> set out to gain a clearer sense of teacher practices and knowledge by sending out two surveys about topics related to early literacy instruction. The first survey was completed by 674 K-2 and elementary special education teachers who self-reported having taught children how to read. The second survey was completed by 533 higher education instructors from four-year colleges or universities who indicated they had taught early </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>literacy instruction to teachers or prospective teachers. Both surveys included questions about approaches to teaching early literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The <a href="https://www.literacyworldwide.org/get-resources/whats-hot-report"><span>ILA survey</span></a>, developed by a 17-member focus group of literacy experts, was completed by 1,443 teachers, higher education professionals, literacy consultants, and school administrators from 65 countries and territories. In winter of 2020, based on the survey results, the ILA released the <a href="https://www.literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/resource-documents/whatshotreport_2020_final.pdf"><i><span><span>What’s Hot in Literacy Report</span></span></i></a> looking at the experiences of reading instructors and identifying critical topics to advancing literacy. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <!--break--><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In this post, I discuss several takeaways from these surveys and explore how literacy instruction begins with teacher preparation programs, but has to be sustained with organizational factors. Taken together, these survey results suggest that teacher knowledge, teacher practices, and organizational or school factors all play a part in effective literacy instruction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Teachers’ Knowledge</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA survey asserts that “according to respondents, the greatest barrier to equity in literacy instruction is the variability of teacher knowledge and teaching effectiveness” (2020, p. 7). Yet, when asked to identify the five essential components of literacy instruction—as identified by the National Reading Panel (Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension)—only 55 percent of K-2 teachers and 78 percent of postsecondary teachers could identify all five (EdWeek Survey).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>While knowledge on literacy instruction begins with teacher preparation programs, when K-2 teachers were asked about where they obtained most of their literacy knowledge, only 5 percent of respondents cited pre-service training. Additionally, when K-2 teachers were asked how prepared they felt to teach reading when they left their pre-service programs, only 11 percent said completely prepared, and about a third said somewhat or completely unprepared (EdWeek Survey). Two-thirds of teachers believe that teacher preparation programs need to be strengthened in terms of literacy instruction (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Teachers’ Practices</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>A majority of educators reported using a balanced literacy approach in their classrooms, but also identified this as an approach where they needed more professional development. Specifically, 68 percent of K-2 teachers reported using balanced literacy (EdWeek Survey). Although there is not one official definition of balanced literacy, respondents identified these common components: shared reading, guided reading, and independent reading (52 percent); phonics (52 percent); vocabulary, word study (39 percent); comprehension (30 percent); shared, guided, or independent writing (22 percent); and phonemic awareness (21 percent). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Elementary teachers rely on leveled reader books more than any other source, with 61 percent of the K-2 EdWeek survey respondents using them. Teachers believed these books “support literacy instruction that encourages students to use pictures as clues to guess at unfamiliar words” (2019, p.10).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Organizational Factors</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA’s </span></span><i><span><span>Reading Research Quarterly</span></span></i><span><span> defines organizational factors as the system and school conditions that affect literacy instruction and reform (Gabriel &amp; Woulfin, 2020). The three major pillars of infrastructure for literacy are: curriculum, professional development, and leadership. (Gabriel &amp; Woulfin, 2020). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Often, K-2 teachers have little control over the literacy curriculum they use in their classrooms. The EdWeek survey found that nearly two-thirds of K-2 teachers said their districts selected the primary programs and materials they used to teach literacy. Fountas &amp; Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention was the top program that districts used, with 43 percent of participants stating they used it at their schools on a daily basis for letter and word practice. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>According to the ILA survey, administrators play an important role in literacy instruction; 83 percent of teachers stated that school leaders should provide direction, leadership, and support regarding professional learning opportunities related to literacy. In addition, 75 percent of teachers stated that school leaders should be responsible for staying up to date on the latest literacy research. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Current educators identify professional development as their number one source of knowledge with 33 percent of teachers claiming they learned the most about literacy instruction from professional development (EdWeek Survey). Similarly, teachers believed school districts should be providing more professional development on literacy topics, ranging from ways to differentiate instruction to a greater understanding of balanced literacy instruction. Respondents identified professional development among the top five most important topics to improve literacy outcomes and they also believed it needed more focus and attention (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Another organizational concern noted by both the ILA and EdWeek surveys was time: 61 percent of teachers stated they needed more time to collaborate with colleagues. Additionally, 90 percent of teachers said they should set aside a minimum of 20 minutes a day for independent reading, but only 60 percent were able to block off any time because of other curriculum goals and standards that needed to be met (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>K-2 teachers reported spending an average of 80 minutes a day on literacy instruction and 31 minutes of that time was devoted specifically to phonics (EdWeek Survey). This falls slightly below the <a href="https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED489535.pdf"><span>National Reading Panel's</span></a> daily recommendation of 90 minutes of uninterrupted literacy instruction for K- 2 students. Furthermore, the National Reading Panel only recommends 15 minutes of daily phonics instruction in combination with other areas, including: oral language, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (2005, p.8). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Additionally, respondents in the ILA survey identified inadequate access to books in schools and in families’ homes as another organizational concern and a cause of equity barriers in literacy instruction. Educators stated that classroom and school libraries needed to be strengthened to support students. Additionally, 49 percent of educators acknowledged that using digital resources and texts to support literacy instruction was an area where they needed more support from their administrators. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA and EdWeek surveys paint a complex picture of literacy instruction. While one cannot deny the importance of teacher knowledge and preparation programs, they are not the only determinants for poor outcomes in literacy instruction. What these surveys point to, and what other scholars have argued, is that organizational factors play an even more important role in literacy instruction. A role that can no longer be downplayed or ignored in coverage of literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>- Kayla Reist</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/kayla-reist" hreflang="en">Kayla Reist</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6371&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="8XiBKhRz9HKKEjkqmca6-nton9U7WoUN-uoPKI18YWM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Fri, 22 Oct 2021 12:58:00 +0000 mdicarlo 6371 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org The Science of Reading Reporting: What’s in It for Parents of Young Children? https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/science-reading-reporting-whats-it-parents-young-children <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Science of Reading Reporting: What’s in It for Parents of Young Children?</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/users/equintero" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">equintero</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 14, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The past two or three years have witnessed extensive media coverage of the research on reading (see <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/15/us/reading-phonics.html">here</a>, <a href="https://www.apmreports.org/profile/emily-hanford">here</a>, <a href="https://www.edweek.org/products/spotlight/spotlight-on-science-of-reading">here</a> and <a href="https://www.economist.com/united-states/2021/06/12/american-schools-teach-reading-all-wrong">here</a> for a few examples). This work has informed the public and sounded an alarm on the disconnect between what experts know about reading and the extent to which this knowledge informs instruction across America’s classrooms. Reactions to this in-depth reporting have been positive for the most part, but some critical voices have noted it has helped to reignite the so-called “reading wars” and contributed to a narrow view of the scientific research on reading (see <a href="https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/publications/FYI%20Ed%20Deans%20reading.pdf">here</a> and <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rrq.384">here</a>). Specifically, some of these critics have taken issue with what they view as a hyper focus on one of the two main aspects of reading, decoding or word recognition, at the expense of the second, language comprehension, which is just as crucial to becoming a skilled reader (see <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/nataliewexler/2019/12/14/to-get-reading-right-we-need-to-talk-about-what-teachers-actually-do/?sh=2b2868b75eb1">here</a>). In addition, almost completely absent from the conversation has been any discussion of the system and organizational/school conditions that shape reading instruction and reform (see <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/rrq.339">here</a>). </p> <p>In this post I discuss my own perception of this journalism, what I find remarkable about it, but also what I wish had been more central to it and why. To be clear, I am not an expert on reading, but I am an education researcher (and a parent of a preschooler) who has spent some time reading and reflecting on this topic. Importantly, I am steeped in a context where literacy is central: the Shanker Institute and the American Federation of Teachers have, for over two decades, been translating the science of reading (SoR) for educators <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/subject-index#subject-20">here</a>, <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020/aeliteracy">here,</a> <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">here</a>, <a href="https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=https://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/default/files/Dec-11-pre-school-curriculum.pdf">here</a>, and <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">here</a>) in a consistent, comprehensive, and balanced way. What I have learned from my colleagues over the years has deeply influenced how I’ve contextualized and made sense of the latest SoR reporting.</p> <!--break--> <p><strong>What is the Science of Reading?</strong></p> <p>The <a href="https://www.whatisthescienceofreading.org/science-of-reading-guide">guide</a> developed by a coalition spearheaded by The Reading League states that the SoR is not a fad or pendulum swing, a political agenda, a one size fits all, a program of instruction, or a single specific component such as phonics. Instead, the SoR is a “vast, interdisciplinary body of scientifically-based research about reading and issues related to reading and writing.” Yet, <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rrq.360">some experts have lamented</a> that the <em>interpretation</em> of the SoR “has typically been much narrower” and “focused solely on word reading and the role of systematic phonics instruction in supporting reading achievement.” Literacy expert <a href="https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/states-to-schools-teach-reading-the-right-way/2020/02">David Pearson has gone further</a> arguing that “the new push for reading is ‘obsessed with decoding’ at the expense of other crucial skills, such as the development of children’s oral language and knowledge base.”</p> <p>Unfortunately, there are also problems with how comprehension is understood and taught in American schools. And, as education writer Natalie Wexler has aptly noted, “it is a better hidden problem.” According to Wexler and others <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertpondiscio/2020/11/30/what-good-readers-know/?sh=39a7ff624453">here</a>, and <a href="https://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-research-tells-us-about-reading-comprehension-and-comprehension-instruction">here</a>), language comprehension has been primarily viewed as a skill in the United States; yet there is evidence <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232584848_Effect_of_Prior_Knowledge_on_Good_and_Poor_Readers%27_Memory_of_Text">here</a> for the landmark baseball study, and <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02702711.2021.1888348">here</a> for a recent review) that comprehension is subject-specific, not a skill that can be transferred across knowledge domains. </p> <p>In my view, these concerns are well justified. I am sympathetic to the idea that you can’t be all things to all people. That perhaps, one reason why this latest wave of SoR reporting (and the public debate it has fueled) has been so powerful is because it has focused on <em>discreet</em> parts of the problem with well-defined solutions. But part of me also views this emphasis as a missed opportunity that has likely led to unproductive stress among parents and has failed to capitalize on the role of the broader society in children’s reading success. Yes, children will need to learn how to sound out words, and schools should ensure that they teach that effectively, but there is so much more to reading. There is a lot that families, caregivers, and early childhood educators can do to support children’s literacy from a very early age. A more expansive focus on what it takes to nurture competent readers might have been more empowering and less anxiety inducing. </p> <p><strong>Setting Young Children Up for Reading Success</strong></p> <p>I don’t think I am alone amongst parents in feeling ill-equipped to support my child in developing his decoding skills. In fact, come to think of it, it is questionable that preschool is the time to place a strong emphasis on decoding. Those early years, however, are a wonderful time to focus on oral language development, which plays a critical role in reading comprehension. </p> <p>Toddlers and preschoolers acquire knowledge about the world through conversations with adults, read alouds, and their everyday experiences and interactions with responsive caregivers. Despite the old saying, “learn to read so that you can read to learn,” young children can (and do) learn a great deal, well before they are formally exposed to the mechanics of reading. And this knowledge will be crucial for efficiently understanding and incorporating into their knowledge base what they will later learn to decode. </p> <p>Parents and caregivers play a crucial role supporting children’s oral language development and knowledge building. With encouragement, guidance and support from reading experts, they have the potential to become better at what most already are very good at. Yes, elementary schools should have a content rich, knowledge building curriculum from Kindergarten onwards but parents do not need to sit around and wait; they can be advocates as well as direct agents of change and partner with educators and schools in this important goal. </p> <p>In closing, I appreciate the latest SoR reporting and I am simultaneously in awe of and concerned with the policy shifts that this work has helped to set in motion. But I also feel privileged (and frankly relieved) that I have been able to balance all this information with what I already knew about reading. Instead of focusing on what I couldn’t immediately help my son with (e.g., phonics), I focused on what I <em>could</em> do: selecting books on subjects he was interested in and discussing them with him in our home language, Spanish, with no set agenda, in a way that felt natural and fun to both of us. Some people think knowledge can be boring, dry, or too hard for young children. I will admit I have never held this belief; but to see those ideas disconfirmed with my own child has been extremely powerful. I wish all parents could feel this bit of relief and enjoyment as we continue to advocate for and support scientifically based reading instruction across the United States. </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/early-childhood-education" hreflang="en">Early Childhood Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/education-reporting" hreflang="en">Education Reporting</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/oral-language" hreflang="en">Oral Language</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/early-childhood-education" hreflang="und">Early Childhood Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/esther-quintero" hreflang="und">Esther Quintero</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6367&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="q02tkMvQFDpw8tEYDctoJ5KQCVbqSPSdiA13qsKcwBQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 14 Oct 2021 14:05:51 +0000 equintero 6367 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org What Literacy Can Do https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/what-literacy-can-do <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Literacy Can Do</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 07, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>"In today’s society, the child who doesn’t learn to read does not make it in life. If children don’t learn to read early enough, if they don’t learn to read with comprehension, if they don’t read fluently enough to read broadly and reflectively across all content areas, if they don’t learn to read effortlessly enough to render reading pleasurable, their chances for a fulfilling life—by whatever measure: academic success, financial stability, the ability to find satisfying work, personal autonomy, self-esteem—are practically nil."</em></p> <p>This is the first paragraph from a 1998 AFT resolution on beginning reading instruction. It was true then, and it’s true now. The quote above is harsh, but it is backed by a host of research evidence from eminent scholars, including <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading-difficult"><i>Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children</i></a> (National Research Council), <a href="https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf"><i>The National Reading Panel</i></a> (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), and <a href="https://naeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/NAEd-Reaping-the-Rewards-of-the-Reading-for-Understanding-Initiative.pdf"><i>Reaping the Rewards of Reading for Understanding</i></a> (National Academy of Education). It could also explain why the teaching of reading has so much passion around it; reading well is just that important.</p> <!--break--><p>Literacy literally opens the world to our students. Young children are eager to learn more about the world. They ask constant questions about what they have learned. They develop hypotheses about how the world works. And when they are provided with a stimulating environment, they begin to develop their oral language and literacy skills. But if students continually struggle with the reading process, especially as they age, they may become disaffected and school may become a nightmare for them. So the key to improving overall reading achievement in any school district is to provide effective assistance to the lowest-performing students. The initial step is to establish a system of early screening and diagnosis that can help schools identify struggling students at a much earlier stage than is typical in current practice (<a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/EarlyScreening.pdf">American Educator 2004</a>). The next step is to establish a comprehensive intervention system to help such students. So what would an effective reading intervention system look like? Effective teachers of reading have distilled the research to devise the following interventions:</p> <p>First, systems should be designed to be flexible, and should be able to accommodate the needs of students of varying ages and ability levels, with different areas of weakness.</p> <p>Second, the backbone of any effective system of reading instruction is a skilled and knowledgeable teaching force. All teachers must have access to the professional development that they need to design and execute a modified instructional plan for any student who has been identified as in danger of reading failure (<a href="https://www.a">Moats 2020</a>). According to the research, most reading difficulties in young beginning readers are rooted in inefficient word recognition skills (<a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/fall-2004/avoiding">Torgeson 2004</a>). Thus in the early grades most instructional plans for struggling students should focus on providing more systematic and intensive instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics. In addition, intensive instruction in reading comprehension, vocabulary, reading fluency, writing, language development, listening, and speaking skills should be available to students with reading difficulties.</p> <p>Research also demonstrates that, for comprehension, relevant knowledge is even more important than general reading ability (<a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/spring-2006/how-knowledge-helps">Willingham 2006</a>; <a href="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3-euw1-ap-pe-ws4-cws-documents.ri-prod/9781138087279/18_Nagy_%26_Scott%2C_Vocabulary_Processes.pdf">Nagy and Scott 2000</a>). When high- and low-knowledge groups are divided into good and poor readers, those with little knowledge relevant to the text at hand perform relatively poorly, regardless of how well they read in general. In contrast—and this is important—the performance of the poor readers with higher background knowledge is generally better than that of the good readers with less background knowledge, and nearly as good as the good readers with lots of background knowledge. Prior knowledge about a topic is like “mental velcro” (<a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">Adams 2015</a>). The relevant knowledge gives the words of the text places to stick and make sense, thereby supporting comprehension and propelling the reading process forward. In one study, scientists monitored readers’ eye movements while reading about topics that were more versus less familiar to them. Given texts about less familiar topics, people’s reading slowed down and the progress of their eye movements was marked with more pausing and rereading. In other words, not only do readers with less topic-relevant background knowledge gain less from reading about that topic, less-knowledgeable readers must also expend more time and effort to arrive at what limited understanding they do gain (<a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">Adams 2015</a>).</p> <p>Third, steps should be taken to ensure that additional instruction time is provided to any student who needs it. This might be in the form of extra attention from the classroom teacher, an additional instructional period with a reading specialist, a well-trained tutor, or a special education teacher—or access to summer school and before-, after-, or during-school tutoring programs.</p> <p>Fourth, instructional materials at all grades must address the needs of students who may be falling behind. Reading materials should be designed to reflect the research consensus, and should include technically sound assessment tools to diagnose problems, as well as instructional procedures and age appropriate materials to address areas of difficulty (see, for example, <a href="https://www.texasldcenter.org/lesson-plans">these resources</a> from the Texas Center for Learning Disabilities).</p> <p>Fifth, in cases where students don’t seem to be catching up—despite focused classroom instruction, extra instructional time, and the use of effective, research-based curriculum materials—students should be provided with additional diagnostic assessments as quickly as possible.</p> <p>And sixth, as indicated by the diagnostic assessment and/or the professional opinion of a skilled and knowledgeable teacher, struggling students should be given ready access to any special services that they need—i.e., students should be screened by a reading specialist, special education teacher, psychologist, English as a second language (ESL) teacher, speech pathologist, or an eye or hearing specialist, as necessary.</p> <p>Both the <a href="http://www.shankerinstitute.org">Albert Shanker Institute</a> and the <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-in">American Federation of Teachers</a> have a multitude of resources to help, going back several decades. For the ASI, we produced <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders"><i>Literacy Ladders</i></a>, a curated collection of articles on reading improvement, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/let%E2%80%99s-talk-foundations-oral-language-development-i">Let’s Talk: Oral Language Development</a>, a professional development resource for early education teachers and parents, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/lets-talk-pd-early-literacy-development">Let's Talk: Early Literacy Development</a>, an overview of research on the foundations for literacy and how they may be enhanced in early childhood, including applied information to help guide instructional improvement, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/preschool-curriculum"><i>Preschool Curriculum: What’s In It for Children and Teachers</i></a>, an accessible research synthesis of how and how much young children learn in the academic domains of oral language, literacy, mathematics, and science, and two videos <a href="https://youtu.be/Qj0Nm3YKpEY">The Early Language Gap is About More Than Words</a> and <a href="%22http">Let’s Talk</a>.</p> <p>The AFT has had several major issues on reading research, beginning in 1995, in its flagship <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/all-issues"><i>American Educator</i></a> magazine. The latest issue is from <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020">Summer 2020</a>, which includes a review of some articles on reading instruction from previous years, “<a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020/aeliteracy">On the Road to Literacy with American Educator</a>.” At the same time, AFT released a reissued publication, titled <a href="https://www.readingrockets.org/sites/default/files/teaching-reading-is-rocket-science-2020.pdf"><i>Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science, 2020: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do</i></a>, which reviews the reading research and describes the knowledge base that is essential for teacher candidates and practicing teachers to master if they are to be successful in teaching all children to read well. The AFT also offers professional development for teachers, <a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/plcatalog2021.pdf">AFT Professional Learning Program for Educators</a>, including Beginning Reading Instruction, Reading Comprehension Instruction, Accessible Literacy Framework, and <i>Colorín Colorado</i> Introductory Workshop for ELL Educators. A list for additional literacy resources can be found <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">here</a>, which will be updated periodically.</p> <p>In conclusion, both an effective reading system and an effective reading intervention system provide us with a lot of hope. Many students learn to read easily in the first few years in school, and will need to turn their focus on building their vocabulary and content knowledge. If students who are struggling to read can be identified early enough, if they are provided with screenings and diagnostic assessments, if they are provided with the proper interventions—including attention to building vocabulary and content knowledge—if they can learn to read with comprehension, if they can learn to read well across all content areas, if they learn to read effortlessly enough to render reading pleasurable, they can achieve success in school and throughout their lives. They can also function as effective citizens, who can read and analyze ballot initiatives, legislation, and review documents presented to them when they serve on juries. As Marilyn Jager Adams said in <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders"><i>Literacy Ladders</i></a>, the very purpose and promise of schooling is to prepare students for responsible adult lives—to be civically minded and informed, to prepare them for further education, and to find gainful work that allows them to grow and contribute to society. We agree.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/burnie-bond" hreflang="und">Burnie Bond</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6366&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="mhso1otS-t0tSxovoOepadU4ZKELNYjqSrIU_tv4t_Q"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 07 Oct 2021 13:00:00 +0000 bbond 6366 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Renewing Our Commitment To Reading https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/renewing-our-commitment-reading <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Renewing Our Commitment To Reading</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 04, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>“Follow the science” is a familiar refrain. The earliest science-backed advice at the beginning of the pandemic was “wash your hands.” As emerging science pointed to the efficacy of mask-wearing, and now vaccines, “follow the science” has become ubiquitous with every new way to protect ourselves. It is also common in discussions about learning to read. <a href="https://www.edweek.org/t">More</a> and <a href="https://www.educationnext.org/can-teaching-be-improved-by-law-twenty-states-measures-reading/">more</a> states are discerning what that means for their students, their teachers, and reading programs in general.</p> <p>For over 20 years, the Albert Shanker Institute, alongside of the <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">American Federation of Teachers</a>, has been following the science with the goal of bridging research and practice. Our work on reading instruction has been guided by evidence collected in the National Research Council’s <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading-difficulti"><i>Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children</i></a>, including reading program priorities of explicit, systematic phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, fluency, vocabulary development, content knowledge, and reading comprehension instruction. We have produced several publications curating this evidence, such as <a href="https://www.shankerinstitut">Literacy Ladders</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/let%E2%80%99s-talk-foundations-oral-language-develop">Let’s Talk: Oral Language Development</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.o">Let's Talk: Early Literacy Development</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/preschool-curriculum">Preschool Curriculum: What’s In It for Children and Teachers</a>, and videos such as <a href="https://youtu.be/Qj0Nm3YKpEY">The Early Language Gap is About More Than Words</a> and <a href="https://youtu.be/vdJhX38s-Jo">Let’s Talk</a> to stimulate public discussion about these issues.</p> <p>ASI is renewing our commitment to students, families, educators, schools, and allies in strengthening reading instruction.</p> <!--break--><p>We commit our ability to convene, promote, and support the science of reading instruction and expanding it in these key ways:</p> <ul> <li>We commit to look beyond early reading instruction. It is clear why a majority of the science of reading discussions are focused on our youngest readers. Yet students who continue to struggle with reading into middle school, high school, or even adult basic education programs deserve our best teaching and thinking on how to master their reading skills.</li> <li>We commit to bring a systemic/organizational approach to implementing the science of reading. The lack of comprehensive reading programs embedded in the science of reading is frequently still disconnected from classroom practice. This is often blamed on teacher education programs or teacher’s lack of knowledge, when the reality is likely much more complex than this. It has to do with entire state- and district-wide systems or longstanding organizational decisions that need to be taken into account. We must all reflect on our work and make adjustments to make room for reading instruction based on evidence.</li> <li>We commit to bring fresh perspectives, especially established or emerging science that is culturally specific and focuses on multicultural and multilingual assets that students and families bring to literacy learning, and voices in the research and practitioner community that deserve to be amplified. Following the science means we must not remain in one place. We must look for evidence of promising progress that we have overlooked it in the past.</li> </ul> <p>One of the <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/mission-statement">core commitments of the Albert Shanker Institute</a> is to “celebrate the power of ideas by expanding access to information, encouraging free and rigorous debate, and finding ways for intellectuals to test their ideas with practical action.” When it comes to what we know about the science of reading, our students deserve no less.</p> <p>- Mary Cathryn Ricker</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/mary-cathryn-ricker" hreflang="und">Mary Cathryn Ricker</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6365&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="vDQW97Fbp38PsaY-0PnMcquvv6oHwMScAOgAfPbpw1Q"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Mon, 04 Oct 2021 15:49:45 +0000 bbond 6365 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org How To Support Teachers' Well-Being During COVID-19? Prioritize Relationships With Students. https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/how-support-teachers-well-being-during-covid-19-prioritize-relationships-students <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How To Support Teachers&#039; Well-Being During COVID-19? Prioritize Relationships With Students.</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/users/equintero" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">equintero</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 30, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Our guest authors today are Kristabel Stark, postdoctoral research associate at the University of Maryland, and Nathan Jones, associate professor of special education and education policy at Boston University. </em></p> <p>As schools around the country get ready to reopen this month, we’ve heard a lot of talk about masks, ventilation systems, tablets, and internet access. But in the midst of these logistical conversations, it’s been easy to overlook the thing that matters most for a successful return to school: teachers.  For teachers, factors associated with COVID-19 have challenged core dimensions of their work. As school gets underway this year, and building and district administrators strategize how to go about rebuilding again in the midst of a pandemic, our research suggests that one action is critical: prioritizing relationship building between teachers and students. We find that, of all of teachers’ daily activities, it is their work with students that is most strongly associated with positive emotions. And, this relationship actually intensified in the early months of the pandemic.</p> <p>We did not set out to write a COVID paper. In the fall of 2019, we set out to conduct a longitudinal study of teachers’ daily work experiences, including how they budgeted their time across activities and how their emotions varied within and across schooldays. In the study, nearly 250 teachers in two urban school districts completed time diary surveys in which they recorded how long they spent on various activities, who they spent their time with, and how they felt during these activities and interactions.  We wanted to understand how teachers’ emotions were associated with specific professional activities, and how those emotions changed over the course of a school year. But of course, we didn’t foresee that, midway through data collection, a global pandemic would emerge, temporarily transforming the nature of teachers’ work lives and professional experiences.</p> <!--break--><p>It’s easy to forget how quickly the ground shifted underneath schools. The teachers in our sample, like many others across the country, were told on a Thursday afternoon in March 2020 that school buildings would close on the following Monday. Educators, students, parents alike hoped that the closures would be temporary. Within a week, teachers were familiarizing themselves with online learning platforms, adapting instructional materials for circumstances they were not meant for, collaborating with colleagues and administrators to navigate greatly reduced instructional minutes, and, crucially, working to make sure that their students were safe and accounted for, as well as able to access remote instruction.</p> <p>Our <a href="https://wheelockpolicycenter.org/effective-teachers/teacher-time-use-and-affect-during-covid-19/">study results</a> speak to teachers’ resilience in the face of these changes and, ultimately, of the importance of teacher-student relationships. Prior to the pandemic, the single activity most strongly associated with positive emotional experiences was working with students. Interestingly, once the pandemic hit, the intensity of their positive emotions when interacting with students was actually higher <i>during</i> the weeks immediately following school building closures, than before. While teachers have been accused of not stepping up to the plate, we found that teachers in our study felt <i>more </i>determined to meet their students’ needs in the weeks following COVID-related nationwide school shutdowns.</p> <p>We’re not alone, or the first, in noting the urgency of teacher-student relationships in the wake of the pandemic. But while many researchers have focused on the importance of these relationships for students’ emotional wellbeing and academic progress, our research demonstrates that student-teacher relationships are just as important and meaningful for teachers.</p> <p>Why should we care so much about teachers’ emotions? Prior research demonstrates there is a connection between teachers’ emotional well-being and their willingness to stay in the profession; teacher shortages and teacher retention are longstanding issues that have only increased during the pandemic. But teachers don’t have unlimited emotional resources—and we don’t have unlimited teachers. While teachers in our study rose to the occasion, prioritizing and deeply investing in their students as the pandemic upended their work and their lives, we don’t know how long they were able to sustain this initial response.  Other <a href="https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1108-1.html">studies</a> have shown that, as the pandemic wore on, teachers across the country reported feeling demoralized and emotionally depleted. With ongoing teacher shortages, particularly in high-needs neighborhoods, which were hit particularly hard by the pandemic, we can’t afford to lose our teachers.</p> <p>So what can administrators do? Prioritize—and support—teachers’ efforts to build relationships with their students. They can limit the extent to which additional planning and administrative responsibilities are placed on teachers in efforts to respond to the pandemic. Such efforts alone will likely not be enough to combat the levels of stress and burnout teachers have experienced this year.  But in the midst of so many technical solutions to address the current situation – e.g., high dose tutoring, extended days, summer school –our research gently reminds administrators to make space for relationship building, which has always mattered but appears even more central in times of upheaval and uncertainty.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/coronavirus" hreflang="en">Coronavirus</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/education-research" hreflang="en">Education Research</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/school-climate" hreflang="en">School climate</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/teacher-retention" hreflang="en">Teacher Retention</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/school-culture" hreflang="und">School Culture</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/kristabel-stark" hreflang="en">Kristabel Stark</a></div> <div><a href="/nathan-d-jones" hreflang="und">Nathan D. Jones</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6363&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="EnQT1uTvq9Sd1a18YCh9UO9qQvm1VFZ5WErxheqlfTc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 30 Sep 2021 11:41:26 +0000 equintero 6363 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Teaching The Constitution As A Living Compact https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/teaching-constitution-living-compact <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Teaching The Constitution As A Living Compact</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 29, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our final guest author in this series is Randi Weingarten, president of the Albert Shanker Institute and the American Federation of Teachers. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>At a time when the future of American democracy hangs in the balance, how should we teach the U.S. Constitution?</p> <p>The Preamble to the Constitution, where the framers laid out its purposes, provides us with six words that help answer this question. The Constitution was intended, its authors wrote, “to form a more perfect union.” With this phrase, the framers made it clear that they did not conceive of the Constitution or the republic it established as a finished product, perfect and complete for all time, but as a work in progress, in need of continuous renewal and “re-founding.” By the design of the founders, the Constitution is a living compact, changing and evolving with “we the people” who authorize it and give it legitimacy anew with each successive generation of Americans.</p> <!--break--><p>It is this dynamic quality that enabled the American people to re-found a Constitution which had enslavement of African-Americans explicitly written into it, and to change that with the Civil War amendments—the 13th,14th and 15th that promise universal liberty and equality. It is this same quality that gave us the capacity to re-found a Constitution that permitted the most fundamental right of citizenship—the vote—initially restricted to white men of property, to be expanded.  Suffrage now is a freedom for all men and women over 18 years old, irrespective of class, race, religion and national origin. It is this essential quality that has made it possible for the American republic, with all of its strengths and all of its flaws, to become “more perfect” and endure for over two centuries.</p> <p>The battle for universal liberty and equality, and for citizenship for all Americans, is by no means done. Today we face the challenge of laws designed to suppress voting, to gerrymander election districts and to overturn democratic elections. As the framers understood, the struggle for a “more perfect union” is never finished. That is why a vision of a Constitution that can address the flaws of our republican institutions is so fundamental to American democracy.</p> <p>To teach the Constitution as a living compact, we should make it possible for our students, as the next generation of “we the people,” to not simply read or embrace the words, but also to interrogate them, to contextualize this document of fundamental law that is being handed down to them. Our students should be able to inquire not only into how the Constitution delivers on the democratic promise of “liberty and justice for all,” but also into how, in their judgment, it falls short of that promise. They should have the freedom and the right to discover a Constitution that they can make into their own vehicle for “forming a more perfect union.” As educators, we should conceive of our work as facilitating that process of inquiry and discovery on the part of our students. When I taught American history, civics and law to my inner-city and immigrant students in Clara Barton High School in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, this was how I understood my purpose: to introduce to my students a Constitution that they understood not simply for what it is now, but that they could see themselves in, envisioning how its words and their actions could together enable a “more perfect union.” </p> <p>Some may object that the mission of educators is to inculcate in students an allegiance to the political institutions and principles they will inherit, starting with the Constitution. I have devoted my adult life as an educator, a unionist and a lawyer to advocating and advancing the core democratic principles of liberty, equality, justice and solidarity, and in my dedication to these principles and to the ways in which they are embodied in the Constitution, I cede to no one. But I do not believe that the work of educators is to demand or dictate that  students adopt as their own our ideas—even the ones we know are essential such as liberty, equality, justice and solidarity. Rather, our vocation is—as John Dewey would often put it—to teach students how to think, not what to think. It is precisely my faith in democracy that leads me to conclude that a person with the ability to reason logically and think critically will, far more often than not, embrace fundamental democratic principles and institutions. They will be able to discern fact from propaganda. They will be able to reject misinformation and distortion. I was never afraid of my students' pursuit of hard questions, or uncomfortable truths. My goal was to have my students engage the Constitution in ways that led them to think critically about its history and meaning and to reason with each other about its purpose and its future.</p> <p>These are perilous times for American democracy. The January 6th insurrection and its aftermath have put the dangers we face in dramatic reveal. A rededication to teaching a Constitution that seeks to build on our strengths and redress our weaknesses in order for “we the people”  “to form a more perfect union” is important for American educators.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/randi-weingarten" hreflang="und">Randi Weingarten</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6361&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="Cy5k8ZesO_X75UBqd9R6yeiYHfsQGnTWeTYzv2Ccatc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Wed, 29 Sep 2021 15:14:36 +0000 bbond 6361 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Federal Policy And Tribal Sovereignty https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/federal-policy-and-tribal-sovereignty <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Federal Policy And Tribal Sovereignty</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 16, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is Jordann Lankford-Forster. an educator and an IEFA instructional coach for Great Falls Public Schools in Great Falls, Montana. Jordann is A’aniiih and Anishinaabe, and her A’aniiih name is Bright Trail Woman. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>American Indian Federal policy has historically played a significant role in tribal sovereignty. This is always a difficult subject to explain because it is so multifaceted. Prior to colonization, tribal sovereignty was exercised absolutely, with tribes interacting on a government-to-government basis, and under total self-sufficiency. Today, major contributing factors to achieving total sovereignty include location, access to resources, and relationship status with the Federal Government. It is important to remember that tribal sovereignty—or the ability to remain separate and independent—looks different for every tribe. As (the 574) tribes and individual American Indians navigate their future, the Constitution is continually referenced as a means to gain a strong foothold within the country that we now know as the United States of America. </p> <p>I teach in a small district in Great Falls, Montana. Our student population is 16.5 percent American Indian and 44 different tribes are represented within our school system. My district is considered “urban” because it is in a city rather than located on a reservation. In 1972 the Montana Constitution was revised to recognize the “distinct and unique cultural heritage of American Indians”  and to be “committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity.” And, as a district, we are continually trying to ensure we honor that. At times, it is difficult for my students because they do not always feel like they have a sense of identity within this country.</p> <!--break--><p><strong>Mixed Messages</strong></p> <p>Now more than ever students are bombarded with information on social media platforms and watch political leaders and their parents alike argue over various social issues. The need for a strong foundation is vital for student success and when everyone around you seems to be divided, it is difficult to know where to turn. The goal of an educator should <em>never</em> be, “I want to teach my students to think exactly as I do.” The goal should <em>always</em> be, “I want my students to evaluate information and think critically for themselves.” The primary source document we know as the Constitution does exactly that. It is more than teaching them right from wrong. I want my students to know the Constitution and apply it when they find themselves buried, without a sense of direction. </p> <p>Teaching our students the Constitution is essentially teaching them justice, and if you know your rights have been infringed upon, you will understand how to take the proper steps to correct your circumstance. I have a simplified version of all 27 Amendments on my classroom wall, which we review daily. </p> <p>Every morning I ask my excited learners to locate a credible news source and report on a “current event.” After they read and summarize their article, we talk about how they feel about it. We refer to the Amendments often, and discuss how some of them may apply. The big takeaway here is that they are listening to each others’ opinions, and finding solid ground on their own. </p> <p><strong>Timeline Activity </strong></p> <p>The most effective way to incite learning is to disrupt the learner’s schema. In other words, take what they believe to be true and present information that startles world views, usually leading to amazing conversations. An exercise I do with my students and the educators I instructionally coach is what I call the “timeline activity.”</p> <ul> <li>First, I make a list of significant events (not including dates) concerning American Indian Federal policy and cut each one into its own strip of paper. </li> <li>Second, I mix them up and divide the students into groups.</li> <li>Then I ask the groups to discuss and place the strips of paper containing a significant event in the order that they believe the events occurred. </li> <li>It is important to put identifying makers among the events so that students have some frame of reference. (for example, Lewis and Clark Expedition, World War I, World War 2, etc.).</li> <li>After the groups believe they have the correct order, or have tried their best, read them the correct order of events.</li> </ul> <p>This is where it gets interesting. Students and staff alike are shocked to understand the historical timeline of Federal Indian Policy within the United States. For instance, when they learn that American Indians officially became citizens in 1924 under the Snider Act but did not receive the freedom of religion until 1978, a new perspective is introduced. I always find myself asking, “<em>Is this Constitutional?”</em></p> <p><strong>We the People</strong></p> <p>The purpose of the previous activity is not to incite blame, shame, or guilt. The purpose of this activity is to remind others that not all Americans have experienced the same rights guaranteed by the Constitution and, thus, may not have experienced all of the same success that we see in the mainstream today. As soon as we come to that realization we can better understand each other, and ourselves. The standard that has been set by the false Facebook “warrior” culture could potentially be a distant memory when we stop trying to be <em>right</em>, and begin to actually <em>listen</em>.</p> <p>The Constitution is a very freeing document and once students are acquainted with it, they understand their personal rights, and their self worth as an American.  The Constitution has not been applied perfectly in the past but, I believe we are moving in the right direction when it comes to tribal sovereignty. This document, when taken into account, provides personal autonomy and self-actualization.  It all begins with understanding your rights and how the Constitution can be used to serve your people. I want my students to be able to walk anywhere, and fear nothing.</p> <p><strong>Additional Reading Materials</strong></p> <p>Lopach, J.J., Brown, M.J., &amp; Clow, R.L. (1990). <em>Tribal Government Today</em>. (2nd ed.). Boulder: University of Press Colorado.</p> <p>Montana Office of Public Instruction. (2021). “<em>Indian Education For All</em>.”  <a href="https://opi.mt.gov/Educators/Teaching-Learning/Indian-Education-for-All">https://opi.mt.gov/Educators/Teaching-Learning/Indian-Education-for-All</a></p> <p>Prucha, F.P. (2000). <em>Documents of United Sates Indian Policy.</em> (3rd ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civil-rights" hreflang="en">Civil Rights</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/jordann-lankford-forster-bright-trail-woman" hreflang="en">Jordann Lankford-Forster (Bright Trail Woman)</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6359&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="BksdL-538z4Y_wm6yUqqHNwXGieZlpmjuyPxBzkibaQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 16 Sep 2021 13:43:20 +0000 bbond 6359 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Why Teach The Constitution? https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/why-teach-constitution <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why Teach The Constitution?</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 15, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is Zeph Capo, a public school science teacher, president of the Texas AFT, and member of the Shanker Institute Board of Directors. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>Collective bargaining is the cornerstone on which we built the middle-class. As a labor leader, it is the best tool used by workers to earn a seat at the table as equals with their employer. It is also how we develop a contract outlining one another’s roles, rights, and responsibilities in the workplace. As an educator, I ask: <em><strong>How do we expect workers to understand the process and power of collective bargaining if they don’t understand the power and process of governance as outlined in our Constitution?</strong></em></p> <p>I believe teaching the Constitution is vital, because it is the premier collectively-bargained contract present in our lives. The rights, responsibilities, and regulations set forth in the Constitution serve as the bedrock on which we develop all other aspects of the agreements governing the many facets of our society.</p> <!--break--><p>Our Constitution details the contract between the government and the governed. Like any contract, the Constitution outlines both your rights and responsibilities as a party to the agreement. In the midst of the pandemic, some citizens denounce masking policies that they claim violate their rights. They often fail to remember or acknowledge that we give up some individual freedoms when we give our consent to be governed. The consent to be governed is a trade-off of personal liberties for the greater collective ability of the government to protect life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all citizens. It is the very essence of the social contract we bargained collectively as a nation more than 200 years ago.</p> <p>Our system of government, and challenge thereunto, is vested in the ballot box. Our belief in popular sovereignty and the peaceful transition of power has kept our government stable for centuries. Sadly, when our citizenry is less familiar with their role in the governance process, or do not exercise their right to vote and be active participants in our society, we suffer governments beholden only to the loud minority who <em>do</em> participate in the process.</p> <p>Laws such as the recent Texas voter suppression act compromise our social contract and endanger future peaceful transitions of power by fundamentally altering the premise that we are all created equal with equal rights and responsibilities. Such acts remind us that our past history of denying basic constitutional rights to many of our citizens is not, in fact, history.  Students who understand the Constitution are in a better place to challenge governments that create unjust laws with the purpose of consolidating power, rather than to govern justly. This is exactly why Texas AFT has joined with other organizations who share our values of equality to challenge the constitutionality of Texas’ most recent voter suppression law.</p> <p>Lastly, teaching the Constitution and other similar primary source documents is our best defense against the corrosive impact of fake news in our society. Truth and fact become elusive when we are bombarded with information on a regular basis. Understanding how to use primary source documents, such as the Constitution, allows for the greatest level of transparency and the ability for students to distinguish between the varying quality of information sources. Securing our rights requires that we constantly demand them. Understanding and enforcing our contract is how we do so. Right now, our country is in need of a new wave of 21st century constitutional scholars to get the job done. Let’s do our part as educators to develop them.</p> <p><em>Thank you to Zaakir Tameez, Nicole Hill and Andrew Dewey for your thoughts on this topic. </em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/zeph-capo" hreflang="und">Zeph Capo</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6356&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="PeeZWjKfwPqdJPFCA5LWG3FakAWZcBuDjxBO7dBxXR4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Wed, 15 Sep 2021 22:40:14 +0000 bbond 6356 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Teaching Students The Textualist Interpretation Of Law https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/teaching-students-textualist-interpretation-law <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Teaching Students The Textualist Interpretation Of Law</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 14, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is David Said, a social studies teacher at Athens High School in Troy, Michigan. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>In a fairly recent court case, Bostock v. Clayton County (2020), the US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that sex discrimination does cover gay and transgender individuals under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. One of the more surprising aspects of this case was that the majority opinion was delivered by associate justice Neil Gorsuch. Appointed by President Trump to replace the late Antonin Scalia, most assumed he would tow the line of conservative jurisprudence. In joining with Chief Justice John Roberts and all three of the court<span dir="RTL">’</span>s liberal leaning justices, Gorsuch<span dir="RTL">’</span>s majority decision showcased a level of judicial independence that is important for the maintaining the integrity of this important institution. </p> <p>A key part of Gorsuch<span dir="RTL">’</span>s judicial philosophy is grounded in a concept called <span dir="RTL">“</span>textualism.” Simply put, textualism is an interpretation of law in which the words of the legal text are analyzed through the lens of their normal meaning. It is quite common for Justices to include authors’ intent, historical examples, and most importantly precedence as factors when deciding a case that comes before the Supreme Court. Textualism appears to simplify this process altogether by requiring one to truly dig deep into the meaning of words and phrase. In the Bostock case, the word that Gorsuch zeroed in on was <span dir="RTL">“</span>sex” within Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Discriminating against an individual or group because of their sex could reasonably be interpreted to include gender as well as sexual orientation. The six Justices in the majority agreed with that preceding sentence. Conversely, the Justices in the minority were quick to point out that members of the legislative branch were likely not thinking of anything beyond men or women in the year 1964.</p> <!--break--><p><strong>How can this story and the use of textualism help our students better understand the C</strong><strong>onstitution?</strong></p> <p>First, any teacher would be quick to point the importance of literacy in content area instruction. Being a literate individual not only requires comprehension skills, but also the ability to critically decipher the meaning of words or phrases within a larger piece of text. The work of textualism is the work of all readers who seek solutions about critical issues in their society. It is vital, especially when teaching about the Supreme Court, to avoid the partisanship that is more easily applicable to the Legislative and Executive branches of government. Especially when under the scrutiny of the confirmation process, all Justices seek to portray themselves and stewards of the law, impartial, and unbiased in their decision making. Likewise, when reading our Constitution, our students should not be reading this document as a Democrat or Republican. Rather they, like our Justices, should be reading them as learners, thinkers, and one could argue as textualists.</p> <p>Like in the Bostock case, textualism is especially particularly applicable to the issues of civil rights. For example, in my class, I have had students look at the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. The clause itself stating, <span dir="RTL">“</span>nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”When I ask students who has been most positively impacted by this clause, most are quick to point out African Americans. I follow up with asking who has been left out? Students respond with other marginalized groups and people of color.  A discussion of the failure of Reconstruction and beginnings of Jim Crow will be coming soon enough. But in the moment, I ask my students to put themselves in the shoes of a Supreme Court Justice, putting bias aside as much as possible. Using the words of the clause alone, should the equal protection clause include every segment of the American population? This begins our journey into the mind of an interpreter of law, a textualist.</p> <p>My advice when reading any part of the Constitution, is to teach students to put the text first. The ability to think critically requires all of us to put partisanship aside. For students to debate political issues amongst themselves, they must first attain the vital skill of having dialogue with the text of our founding document. This is the means of truly developing critical thinkers who are civic minded. I ask my fellow teachers to have students explore other areas of our Constitution. Have them analyze the ordinary meanings of as many words as possible. Maybe a future Justice in your classroom will identify a new pathway for imparting our Constitution<span dir="RTL">’</span>s values onto a new generation of leaders?</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/david-said" hreflang="en">David Said</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6357&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="LxCD_XMUCOiQK-2dYv2JZ2wmnCJ04hnoXeNL9N3k2ts"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Tue, 14 Sep 2021 13:39:08 +0000 bbond 6357 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Understanding The Complexities Of History https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/understanding-complexities-history <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Understanding The Complexities Of History</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 13, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our first guest author is Stephen Lazar, is a National Board Certified Social Studies teacher, who is typically teaching students Social Studies and English at Harvest Collegiate High School in NYC, which he helped to start. This year, he is on sabbatical and a Ph.D. candidate in history at the CUNY Graduate Center and is one of the Shanker Institute Civics Fellows. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>This is my first Constitution Day in some time where I will not be teaching high school students, since I am on sabbatical as I work towards a Ph.D. in history. When I am teaching history, there are two things I want students to understand more than anything else. First, history is complicated; things are rarely simply good or bad. Second, I want students to understand that that history is not merely a list of sequential facts. Instead, history is made up of competing interpretations. I regularly tell my students that historians, far more knowledgeable than we are, look at all the available evidence and come to different conclusions from each other. When I return to the classroom next fall, I plan to engage my students in one such disagreement in looking at the impact of the Constitution on people who were enslaved.</p> <p>Increasingly over the past few years, my students have come with strong opinions on the Constitution’s relationship to the institution of slavery. This happens for a variety of reasons: engagement with the Black Lives Matter movement, watching <em>Thirteenth </em>on Netflix, and exposure to the growing public discourse that examines the history of racism in the United States. Whereas a decade ago, most of my students knew very little about the Constitution or had a relatively positive view of it, now a critical mass of my students strongly believe that the Constitution laid the foundation for a racist society because it was proslavery.</p> <!--break--><p>As I’ve been reading for my oral exams, I have been thinking a lot about a different approach to engaging students in this debate. Two of my professors, thankfully, offer a way to examine this as a debate. In their books, David Waldstreicher and James Oakes offer two different interpretations about the relationship between the Constitution and slavery. They offer a clear path for me as a teacher to design a unit that emphasizes <a href="https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/opinion-teaching-history-through-inquiry/2011/11">inquiry-based learning</a>. I’ll engage students first with Waldstreicher’s interpretation that mostly affirms their view that the Constitution was a proslavery document, but then offer them Oakes’ which challenges it. </p> <p>In his 2009 book, <em>Slavery's Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification</em><strong>*</strong>, David Waldstreicher shows that slavery was central to the discourse preceding and following the Constitution, as well as to the Constitution itself. His central argument is that the framers “created fundamental laws that sustained human bondage” (3). Going beyond the 3/5 Compromise, limitations on ending the slave trade, and the Fugitive Slave Clause, he shows that eight other places in the Constitution impact slavery as well. The very power to govern that the Constitution provided also established the power to govern slavery. Particularly in his examination of the ratification debates, Waldstreicher shows that slavery was far more central to the entire process of establishing the Constitution than previously acknowledged. He argues, though, that what was left unsaid was just as important, if not more so. By leaving slavery out of the Constitution explicitly—and creating a discourse that talked around enslavement, but rarely directly at it—slavery was depoliticized on the national level and thereby able to continue to exist and expand. </p> <p>Examining a later period of history in his 2021 book <em>The Crooked Path to Abolition: Abraham Lincoln and the Antislavery Constitution</em>, James Oakes examines the history of antislavery constitutionalism and Lincoln’s commitment to it. Lincoln and the rest of the antislavery coalition that supported the Republican Party believed “the promise of universal freedom was embodied in the Constitution” (xiv). Lincoln, his allies, and his supporters viewed the Constitution as an antislavery document. They believed they were putting slavery on the path of extinction just as the founders had planned. Oakes doesn’t deny that the 3/5 Compromise and Fugitive Slave clauses were proslavery, but he argues that there were many other places when the Constitution was antislavery: its ability to make rules and regulations in the territories (which everyone, until the <em>Dred Scot</em> decision, agreed gave Congress the power to regulate slavery there); and the commitment to equality in the preamble and the Fifth Amendment. Just as (if not more) important was the belief that the “spirit” of the Constitution was antislavery. Oakes shows that Lincoln and others acknowledged that the Constitution represented a compromise with slavery, but that the framers intended that slavery would die out. </p> <p>To bring the debate alive for students, I plan to have them put the framers of the Constitution on trial. This would be a culminating experience after the students would have already studied the Constitution and individual human experiences of enslavement, as well as resistance to it. While I approach my courses thematically, if I was teaching a conventional chronological course, this would serve as an ideal culminating experience for a study of US history through the Civil War.  I would adapt <a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/ae_fall2016sherrin.pdf">the techniques developed by my former colleague David Sherrin on using Mock Trials in the classroom</a>, which he wrote about in the excellent book <em><a href="https://www.routledge.com/Judging-for-Themselves-Using-Mock-Trials-to-Bring-Social-Studies-and-English/Sherrin/p/book/9781138644571">Judging for Themselves</a></em>. Half the class would be assigned to prosecute the framers for being supportive of slavery, while the other half would have to defend them. This would come after a couple months of community building within the class, while establishing the norm that we are always trying to make the best possible arguments we can based on evidence. In the mock trial, students would assume the role of lawyers and witnesses, getting to call, question, and cross-examine relevant historical figures, including the framers themselves. Lawyers would be able to draw on the interpretations that Waldstreicher and Oakes presented to plan their arguments. To prepare their testimony and questions, students would examine primary sources from the Constitutional Convention, ratification debates, and subsequent United States history. </p> <p>This is a particularly great debate to help students understand the complexities of history, as there are both abolitionists and enslavers who found themselves arguing each side. As Oakes shows, even those far more enthusiastic about abolition than Lincoln, such as <a href="https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/1860-frederick-douglass-constitution-united-states-it-pro-slavery-or-anti-slavery/">Frederick Douglass</a>, thought the Constitution gave them a route to achieving their goals, but other abolitionists such as Willian Lloyd Garrison saw the Constitution as a <a href="https://www.masshist.org/object-of-the-month/objects/a-covenant-with-death-and-an-agreement-with-hell-2005-07-01">“covenant with death and an agreement with hell.”</a> On the other hand, there were virulent racist enslavers like <a href="https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&amp;httpsredir=1&amp;article=2042&amp;context=annals-of-iowa">John Calhoun</a> who argued that the Constitution supported slavery, but the secessionists ultimately left because they did not think the Constitution would protect them against the rule of Lincoln and the Republican Party. The defense could call on supportive witnesses such as Douglass and potentially hostile witnesses like secessionists; the prosecution could call Garrison or Calhoun.</p> <p>My goal for this unit will not be for the students to come to a certain conclusion, but rather to deeply engage with a complex and important topic. Understanding the Constitution is the foundation of any meaningful political engagement in the United States, whether one is privileged to be a citizen or not. Just as foundational is grappling with the relationship of slavery to this country’s founding, not to mention its continued legacy. By approaching the relationship between these two topics through a student-centered inquiry, students will be able to develop their interpretations of the past, while hopefully still recognizing the ambiguities of the issue. If they can do this, they’ll be well prepared to be far better citizens and community members than the models being presented to them by far too many today. </p> <p>*****</p> <p>* The summaries of the two books are somewhat simplified to make them more accessible for high school students. I’ve also emphasized in them the points where there is more disagreement between the two.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/stephen-lazar" hreflang="und">Stephen Lazar</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6355&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="a8ICZnIhzGq9CCJg31dC9S4tlLiIn6lbAO4AKqcRU1E"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Mon, 13 Sep 2021 22:34:25 +0000 bbond 6355 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org