Shanker Blog https://www.shankerinstitute.org/ en Early Reading: Screening, Diagnosis, And Prevention https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/early-reading-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Early Reading: Screening, Diagnosis, And Prevention</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 27, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="Default"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><i><span><span><span>This is an updated excerpt from a publication I developed in 2000 while working for the AFT Educational Issues Department, “Putting Reading Front and Center: A Resource Guide for Union Advocacy.” By tapping the expertise of teachers of reading among members, local unions can use their collective voice to strengthen reading instruction.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The best form of reading remediation is to prevent children from falling behind in the first place. To many educators, this statement seems so obvious that it<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s an education truism. Yet it<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s one thing to agree on a basic truth and quite another to figure out how to implement it as part of a comprehensive school improvement effort.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b>The importance of assessing early reading skills</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The first essential step in building an effective support system for struggling readers is to identify difficulties quickly, before an achievement gap can develop. The second is to implement effective prevention and early intervention strategies—i.e., stepping in while students are so young that reading failure never occurs, or early enough that it is relatively easy for students to catch up. For reading, it<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s particularly important that this support begin at the earliest possible grade level.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <!--break--><p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>For example, researchers are able to predict what children<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s reading levels will be in late elementary and middle school grades, with the fair degree of accuracy, just by looking at their reading skills in kindergarten and first grade. Oral reading fluency measured in the spring of first grade predicted both initial levels and growth of reading and math achievement from third through eighth grade (<a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0013189x12445320?journalCode=edra">Herbers et al. 2012</a>). In other words, without intervention, students who are behind in reading when they begin school generally don<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>t catch up (<a href="https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0022-0663.80.4.437">Juel 1988</a>). This is not an area where a belief the children will learn to read when they are developmentally ready is appropriate; children who are having trouble keeping up (to expected grade levels) need immediate assistance.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>What happens when effective intervention is provided? For 85 percent to 90 percent of struggling readers between the ages of 5 and 7, 30 minutes a day of prevention and early intervention instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, reading fluency, vocabulary development and reading comprehension provided by a well-trained teacher can help to increase reading skills to average reading levels (<a href="http://www.ldonline.org/article/Report_on_Learning_Disabilities_Research?them&amp;theme=print">Lyon 1997</a>). However, if intervention is delayed, the research suggests that at least two hours a day of special instruction could be needed (<a href="http://www.ldonline.org/article/14907/">Hudson et al. 2007</a>). Few schools can provide such assistance at that point without taking away other learning experiences from students. Thus, approximately 75 percent of these children continue to have reading difficulties into adulthood.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b>Screening and diagnosis</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>So how can you implement an early identification system that is both effective and efficient?</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>First it<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s important to note that the terms “screening” and “diagnostic assessment” are not interchangeable. Screening is a process for determining which students may be at risk for reading problems. Because screenings are intended for use with all children, they should be quick, inexpensive, easy to administer, and simple to interpret. These characteristics of screening also allow for screening to be conducted frequently, targeted when needed, and recognize the expertise of the classroom teacher as the primary reading instructor (<a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/EarlyScreening.pdf">American Educator 2004</a>). Diagnostic assessment, on the other hand, is a process to help figure out what is causing a particular student’s reading difficulties and what to do about it. Because such tests must try to pinpoint causes and suggest solutions for students’ reading problems, they need to be more comprehensive and more precise than a typical screening. And, because only a select number of students need to be served, assessments that are meant to function as a diagnostic instrument can be fairly time and labor-intensive. To be most useful, an early identification system should include both an initial screening <i>and</i> a diagnostic component.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Second, any screening and diagnostic assessment measures that are used should be <span>developmentally appropriate,</span> technically sound, and must include measures of the skills and knowledge that have the highest predictive value—i.e., are the most closely correlated with students’ future performance levels. According to the research, the best predictions a future reading achievement in kindergarten and first grade students can be obtained by measuring (1) children<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s phonemic awareness, and (2) their knowledge of letter names and sounds (<a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/torgesen.pdf">Torgesen 1998</a>; <a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/fall-2004/avoiding-devastating-downward-spiral">Torgesen 2004</a>). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Third, it<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s crucial that the assessment system be well-designed and contain safeguards against practices that label or stigmatize young children. Young children are notoriously poor test takers. They squirm; their attention wanders; they ask meandering questions; and sometimes forget what they were asked to do—in other words, the same things that make them delightful to be around. According to some researchers, the younger the student, the greater the risk of incidental errors. One researcher, Joseph Torgesen, estimates that some tests of very young students may have a “false positive” error rate of up to 60 percent. That is, more than half of all kindergarten students identified as at risk for reading failure will be found not to have a reading problem by the end of first grade, even without intervention. Conversely, some tests may have false negative errors of up to 50 percent. That is, some assessments failed to identify half of the students who will eventually be identified as having serious reading difficulties. Although both are problematic, a high “false negative” rate is clearly more serious. It won<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>t hurt any student if instructors give them extra attention. But it will hurt a struggling student if his or her problems remain unaddressed. Thus, it is important that screening and diagnostic tests are designed for accuracy and technical soundness. It is even more important to ensure that any assessment for very young students is designed to inform instruction and target intervention services and not and that it not be used for tracking or accountability.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Fourth, the research on the early emergence of reading problems notwithstanding, children<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>s social, emotional, and academic development occur at somewhat different rates. As mentioned above, schools should expect that reading difficulties won<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>t be immediately evident for a significant proportion of students. For others, adjustments in instructional methods, targeting interventions (such as tutoring), or (for a few) just the passage of time will act to dissipate problems. In order to accommodate these differences, an effective screening and diagnostic assessment system should include plans for periodic re-screening.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>And finally, no screening and diagnostic assessment system will be useful, much less effective, if the results aren<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>t used to provide students with the help they need to succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b>Prevention/Early Intervention </b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Once screening has identified the students who are at risk for developing reading problems and diagnosis as focused attention on the area(s) of probable difficulty, then what?</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>For most students, extra attention from their classroom instructor will suffice. As an integral part of teacher preparation and professional development, teachers of reading should receive training that will allow them to administer simple screening and diagnostic assessments—as well as to interpret and use the data gained from such assessments. Expert classroom practitioners should be able to design and execute a modified instructional plan for most students who have been identified as in danger of reading failure.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>According to the research, most reading difficulties in young beginning readers are rooted in inefficient word recognition skills (<a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/torgesen.pdf">Torgesen 1998</a>; <a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/fall-2004/avoiding-devastating-downward-spiral">Torgesen 2004</a>). Thus, in the early grades, this differentiated classroom instruction will usually entail more intensive and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics-related activities. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>It is <i>vital</i> that attention also be paid to instructional activities that help build students vocabulary, content knowledge, and comprehension skills—especially when working with students who don<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" xml:lang="AR-SA">’</span>t have the benefit of a literacy-rich home environment (that is, families that have few books in the home and/or have little or no access to local libraries). Oral language and vocabulary development are arguably the most crucial areas of academic focus during the early grades. Vocabulary size in pre-K, kindergarten, and 1st grade can predict children’s ability to comprehend texts throughout late elementary school and into middle and high school (<a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2003-99913-003">Dickinson et al. 2003</a>; <a href="https://psychology.cas.lehigh.edu/sites/psychology.cas2.lehigh.edu/files/pathway_to_reading.pdf">NICHD Early Child Care Research Network 2003</a>). In the early grades, children must develop as both listeners and speakers. Receptive (listening) language grows as children are exposed to completely new words or to words they already know that are used in new and different ways. Children can learn some word meanings after only one or two exposures if the word is paired with a concrete object, an action, or a brief explanation. This type of word learning, called “fast-mapping,” explains young children’s rapid acquisition of vocabulary when they are in a language-rich environment (<a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16390289/">Berninger et al. 2006</a>).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Young children gain a more nuanced understanding of vocabulary with each exposure. Most children will need to hear a new word several times in different contexts before fully incorporating it into their receptive (listening) vocabulary, and probably many more times before using it in their expressive (speaking) language (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284055271_Vocabulary_development_and_instruction_A_prerequisite_for_school_learning">Biemiller 2006</a>). This is because children generally learn words in relation to the specific meanings—objects, concepts, relationships, actions, emotions—they were meant to convey. Children will not understand the words they encounter in text or the meanings conveyed by them unless these words are already part of their receptive vocabulary. As a result, children with large vocabularies and a relatively broad range of knowledge are in a better position to comprehend, learn from, and enjoy the books they read (<a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/preschool-curriculum">Wright and Neuman 2009</a>).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In conclusion, every classroom teacher should be able to draw on a system that provides a full range of specialized services to students, as needed. This should include referrals for additional diagnostic assessments by trained reading specialists, psychologists, and speech and language pathologists, <span>or other professionals who make up the school’s and district’s team of interventionists</span>. This should also include providing extra instructional time to students—through one-on-one tutorials or working in small groups with a reading specialist or a well-trained and supervised paraprofessional, depending on the type and severity of the student’s difficulty. When necessary, the services of a special education, medical, or developmental specialist should also be provided.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="BodyA"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The funding for these types of interventions are well worth the price. For example, it is estimated that every student who leaves school without graduating costs society $260,000 in lost earning, taxes, and productivity (<a href="https://www.aecf.org/resources/double-jeopardy">Hernandez 2012</a>). And, according to a report from the Alliance for Excellent Education, society could save as much as $18.5 billion in annual crime costs if the high school male dropout rate decreased by only 5 percentage points (<a href="https://all4ed.org/reports-factsheets/saving-futures-saving-dollars-the-impact-of-education-on-crime-reduction-and-earnings-2/">DeBaun and Roc 2013</a>). One study found that students who struggled with reading in early elementary grades comprised 88 percent of those who never received a diploma when they grew up, making low reading skills the strongest predictor of the reason that students drop out (<a href="https://www.aecf.org/resources/double-jeopardy">Hernandez 2012</a>). Although school district budgets are extremely tight, the investment in helping students learn to read—and read well—are <a href="http://schoolfinancedata.org/">well worth the cost</a>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/early-childhood-education" hreflang="und">Early Childhood Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/burnie-bond" hreflang="und">Burnie Bond</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6372&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="eFn3ox7J4CmABwNWMPkdey3YhTkV2WqHytvWG81Z15s"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Wed, 27 Oct 2021 07:48:09 +0000 bbond 6372 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/early-reading-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention#comments What Teachers Say About Literacy https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/what-teachers-say-about-literacy <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Teachers Say About Literacy</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/154" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">mdicarlo</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 22, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>There is no denying the impact that literacy has on everyday life. Literacy skills allow us to seek out information, explore subjects in-depth, and gain a deeper understanding of the world around us (<a href="https://educationonline.ku.edu/community/teaching-reading-and-writing-skills"><span>The University of Kansas</span></a>, 2021). Given the importance of literacy, a teacher’s role not only plays a fundamental part in a child's education but also their well-being. To understand what drives a teacher’s pedagogical approaches, two recent surveys from EdWeek and The International Literacy Association (ILA) have attempted to capture how teacher practices, experiences, and knowledge shape their literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In fall of 2019, the <a href="https://www.edweek.org/research-center/research-center-reports/early-reading-instruction-results-of-a-national-survey"><span>EdWeek Research Center</span></a> set out to gain a clearer sense of teacher practices and knowledge by sending out two surveys about topics related to early literacy instruction. The first survey was completed by 674 K-2 and elementary special education teachers who self-reported having taught children how to read. The second survey was completed by 533 higher education instructors from four-year colleges or universities who indicated they had taught early </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>literacy instruction to teachers or prospective teachers. Both surveys included questions about approaches to teaching early literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The <a href="https://www.literacyworldwide.org/get-resources/whats-hot-report"><span>ILA survey</span></a>, developed by a 17-member focus group of literacy experts, was completed by 1,443 teachers, higher education professionals, literacy consultants, and school administrators from 65 countries and territories. In winter of 2020, based on the survey results, the ILA released the <a href="https://www.literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/resource-documents/whatshotreport_2020_final.pdf"><i><span><span>What’s Hot in Literacy Report</span></span></i></a> looking at the experiences of reading instructors and identifying critical topics to advancing literacy. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <!--break--><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In this post, I discuss several takeaways from these surveys and explore how literacy instruction begins with teacher preparation programs, but has to be sustained with organizational factors. Taken together, these survey results suggest that teacher knowledge, teacher practices, and organizational or school factors all play a part in effective literacy instruction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Teachers’ Knowledge</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA survey asserts that “according to respondents, the greatest barrier to equity in literacy instruction is the variability of teacher knowledge and teaching effectiveness” (2020, p. 7). Yet, when asked to identify the five essential components of literacy instruction—as identified by the National Reading Panel (Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension)—only 55 percent of K-2 teachers and 78 percent of postsecondary teachers could identify all five (EdWeek Survey).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>While knowledge on literacy instruction begins with teacher preparation programs, when K-2 teachers were asked about where they obtained most of their literacy knowledge, only 5 percent of respondents cited pre-service training. Additionally, when K-2 teachers were asked how prepared they felt to teach reading when they left their pre-service programs, only 11 percent said completely prepared, and about a third said somewhat or completely unprepared (EdWeek Survey). Two-thirds of teachers believe that teacher preparation programs need to be strengthened in terms of literacy instruction (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Teachers’ Practices</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>A majority of educators reported using a balanced literacy approach in their classrooms, but also identified this as an approach where they needed more professional development. Specifically, 68 percent of K-2 teachers reported using balanced literacy (EdWeek Survey). Although there is not one official definition of balanced literacy, respondents identified these common components: shared reading, guided reading, and independent reading (52 percent); phonics (52 percent); vocabulary, word study (39 percent); comprehension (30 percent); shared, guided, or independent writing (22 percent); and phonemic awareness (21 percent). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Elementary teachers rely on leveled reader books more than any other source, with 61 percent of the K-2 EdWeek survey respondents using them. Teachers believed these books “support literacy instruction that encourages students to use pictures as clues to guess at unfamiliar words” (2019, p.10).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><b><span><span>Organizational Factors</span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA’s </span></span><i><span><span>Reading Research Quarterly</span></span></i><span><span> defines organizational factors as the system and school conditions that affect literacy instruction and reform (Gabriel &amp; Woulfin, 2020). The three major pillars of infrastructure for literacy are: curriculum, professional development, and leadership. (Gabriel &amp; Woulfin, 2020). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Often, K-2 teachers have little control over the literacy curriculum they use in their classrooms. The EdWeek survey found that nearly two-thirds of K-2 teachers said their districts selected the primary programs and materials they used to teach literacy. Fountas &amp; Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention was the top program that districts used, with 43 percent of participants stating they used it at their schools on a daily basis for letter and word practice. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>According to the ILA survey, administrators play an important role in literacy instruction; 83 percent of teachers stated that school leaders should provide direction, leadership, and support regarding professional learning opportunities related to literacy. In addition, 75 percent of teachers stated that school leaders should be responsible for staying up to date on the latest literacy research. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Current educators identify professional development as their number one source of knowledge with 33 percent of teachers claiming they learned the most about literacy instruction from professional development (EdWeek Survey). Similarly, teachers believed school districts should be providing more professional development on literacy topics, ranging from ways to differentiate instruction to a greater understanding of balanced literacy instruction. Respondents identified professional development among the top five most important topics to improve literacy outcomes and they also believed it needed more focus and attention (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Another organizational concern noted by both the ILA and EdWeek surveys was time: 61 percent of teachers stated they needed more time to collaborate with colleagues. Additionally, 90 percent of teachers said they should set aside a minimum of 20 minutes a day for independent reading, but only 60 percent were able to block off any time because of other curriculum goals and standards that needed to be met (ILA Survey). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>K-2 teachers reported spending an average of 80 minutes a day on literacy instruction and 31 minutes of that time was devoted specifically to phonics (EdWeek Survey). This falls slightly below the <a href="https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED489535.pdf"><span>National Reading Panel's</span></a> daily recommendation of 90 minutes of uninterrupted literacy instruction for K- 2 students. Furthermore, the National Reading Panel only recommends 15 minutes of daily phonics instruction in combination with other areas, including: oral language, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (2005, p.8). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Additionally, respondents in the ILA survey identified inadequate access to books in schools and in families’ homes as another organizational concern and a cause of equity barriers in literacy instruction. Educators stated that classroom and school libraries needed to be strengthened to support students. Additionally, 49 percent of educators acknowledged that using digital resources and texts to support literacy instruction was an area where they needed more support from their administrators. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>The ILA and EdWeek surveys paint a complex picture of literacy instruction. While one cannot deny the importance of teacher knowledge and preparation programs, they are not the only determinants for poor outcomes in literacy instruction. What these surveys point to, and what other scholars have argued, is that organizational factors play an even more important role in literacy instruction. A role that can no longer be downplayed or ignored in coverage of literacy instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>- Kayla Reist</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/kayla-reist" hreflang="en">Kayla Reist</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'comment__comment_node_blog__blog' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * comment--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * comment--comment-node-blog.html.twig x comment.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/comment.html.twig' --> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-161936" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1634932560"></mark> <footer class="comment__meta"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'user' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/user.html.twig' --> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0" class="profile"> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/user.html.twig' --> <p class="comment__submitted">Submitted by <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Michael Reist</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> on October 22, 2021</p> <a href="/comment/161936#comment-161936" hreflang="en">Permalink</a> </footer> <div class="content"> <h3><a href="/comment/161936#comment-161936" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">Great job Kayla very well…</a></h3> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--comment-body--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--comment--comment-body.html.twig * field--comment--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--comment-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Great job Kayla very well written!</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=161936&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="IKMvzcHeWxKVD1lT9rbg3kbv-RSyrx_ke5hzkUIZffQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'comment__comment_node_blog__blog' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * comment--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * comment--comment-node-blog.html.twig x comment.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/comment.html.twig' --> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-161937" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1634932560"></mark> <footer class="comment__meta"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'user' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/user.html.twig' --> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0" class="profile"> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/user.html.twig' --> <p class="comment__submitted">Submitted by <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Kim Reist</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> on October 22, 2021</p> <a href="/comment/161937#comment-161937" hreflang="en">Permalink</a> </footer> <div class="content"> <h3><a href="/comment/161937#comment-161937" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en">Very well put this article…</a></h3> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--comment--comment-body--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--comment--comment-body.html.twig * field--comment--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--comment-body.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Very well put this article hit so many points in the education system. If kids cannot read and write they will not survive in this world today.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=161937&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="p3DiYcYCrQjrm5fXhQ77VKNwLvjq0_MeRkSFgLD5YKc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'pager' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/navigation/pager.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/navigation/pager.html.twig' --> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6371&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="8XiBKhRz9HKKEjkqmca6-nton9U7WoUN-uoPKI18YWM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Fri, 22 Oct 2021 12:58:00 +0000 mdicarlo 6371 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org The Science of Reading Reporting: What’s in It for Parents of Young Children? https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/science-reading-reporting-whats-it-parents-young-children <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Science of Reading Reporting: What’s in It for Parents of Young Children?</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/users/equintero" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">equintero</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 14, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The past two or three years have witnessed extensive media coverage of the research on reading (see <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/15/us/reading-phonics.html">here</a>, <a href="https://www.apmreports.org/profile/emily-hanford">here</a>, <a href="https://www.edweek.org/products/spotlight/spotlight-on-science-of-reading">here</a> and <a href="https://www.economist.com/united-states/2021/06/12/american-schools-teach-reading-all-wrong">here</a> for a few examples). This work has informed the public and sounded an alarm on the disconnect between what experts know about reading and the extent to which this knowledge informs instruction across America’s classrooms. Reactions to this in-depth reporting have been positive for the most part, but some critical voices have noted it has helped to reignite the so-called “reading wars” and contributed to a narrow view of the scientific research on reading (see <a href="https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/publications/FYI%20Ed%20Deans%20reading.pdf">here</a> and <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rrq.384">here</a>). Specifically, some of these critics have taken issue with what they view as a hyper focus on one of the two main aspects of reading, decoding or word recognition, at the expense of the second, language comprehension, which is just as crucial to becoming a skilled reader (see <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/nataliewexler/2019/12/14/to-get-reading-right-we-need-to-talk-about-what-teachers-actually-do/?sh=2b2868b75eb1">here</a>). In addition, almost completely absent from the conversation has been any discussion of the system and organizational/school conditions that shape reading instruction and reform (see <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/rrq.339">here</a>). </p> <p>In this post I discuss my own perception of this journalism, what I find remarkable about it, but also what I wish had been more central to it and why. To be clear, I am not an expert on reading, but I am an education researcher (and a parent of a preschooler) who has spent some time reading and reflecting on this topic. Importantly, I am steeped in a context where literacy is central: the Shanker Institute and the American Federation of Teachers have, for over two decades, been translating the science of reading (SoR) for educators <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/subject-index#subject-20">here</a>, <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020/aeliteracy">here,</a> <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">here</a>, <a href="https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=https://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/default/files/Dec-11-pre-school-curriculum.pdf">here</a>, and <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">here</a>) in a consistent, comprehensive, and balanced way. What I have learned from my colleagues over the years has deeply influenced how I’ve contextualized and made sense of the latest SoR reporting.</p> <!--break--> <p><strong>What is the Science of Reading?</strong></p> <p>The <a href="https://www.whatisthescienceofreading.org/science-of-reading-guide">guide</a> developed by a coalition spearheaded by The Reading League states that the SoR is not a fad or pendulum swing, a political agenda, a one size fits all, a program of instruction, or a single specific component such as phonics. Instead, the SoR is a “vast, interdisciplinary body of scientifically-based research about reading and issues related to reading and writing.” Yet, <a href="https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rrq.360">some experts have lamented</a> that the <em>interpretation</em> of the SoR “has typically been much narrower” and “focused solely on word reading and the role of systematic phonics instruction in supporting reading achievement.” Literacy expert <a href="https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/states-to-schools-teach-reading-the-right-way/2020/02">David Pearson has gone further</a> arguing that “the new push for reading is ‘obsessed with decoding’ at the expense of other crucial skills, such as the development of children’s oral language and knowledge base.”</p> <p>Unfortunately, there are also problems with how comprehension is understood and taught in American schools. And, as education writer Natalie Wexler has aptly noted, “it is a better hidden problem.” According to Wexler and others <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertpondiscio/2020/11/30/what-good-readers-know/?sh=39a7ff624453">here</a>, and <a href="https://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-research-tells-us-about-reading-comprehension-and-comprehension-instruction">here</a>), language comprehension has been primarily viewed as a skill in the United States; yet there is evidence <meta charset="UTF-8" />(see <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232584848_Effect_of_Prior_Knowledge_on_Good_and_Poor_Readers%27_Memory_of_Text">here</a> for the landmark baseball study, and <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02702711.2021.1888348">here</a> for a recent review) that comprehension is subject-specific, not a skill that can be transferred across knowledge domains. </p> <p>In my view, these concerns are well justified. I am sympathetic to the idea that you can’t be all things to all people. That perhaps, one reason why this latest wave of SoR reporting (and the public debate it has fueled) has been so powerful is because it has focused on <em>discreet</em> parts of the problem with well-defined solutions. But part of me also views this emphasis as a missed opportunity that has likely led to unproductive stress among parents and has failed to capitalize on the role of the broader society in children’s reading success. Yes, children will need to learn how to sound out words, and schools should ensure that they teach that effectively, but there is so much more to reading. There is a lot that families, caregivers, and early childhood educators can do to support children’s literacy from a very early age. A more expansive focus on what it takes to nurture competent readers might have been more empowering and less anxiety inducing. </p> <p><strong>Setting Young Children Up for Reading Success</strong></p> <p>I don’t think I am alone amongst parents in feeling ill-equipped to support my child in developing his decoding skills. In fact, come to think of it, it is questionable that preschool is the time to place a strong emphasis on decoding. Those early years, however, are a wonderful time to focus on oral language development, which plays a critical role in reading comprehension. </p> <p>Toddlers and preschoolers acquire knowledge about the world through conversations with adults, read alouds, and their everyday experiences and interactions with responsive caregivers. Despite the old saying, “learn to read so that you can read to learn,” young children can (and do) learn a great deal, well before they are formally exposed to the mechanics of reading. And this knowledge will be crucial for efficiently understanding and incorporating into their knowledge base what they will later learn to decode. </p> <p>Parents and caregivers play a crucial role supporting children’s oral language development and knowledge building. With encouragement, guidance and support from reading experts, they have the potential to become better at what most already are very good at. Yes, elementary schools should have a content rich, knowledge building curriculum from Kindergarten onwards but parents do not need to sit around and wait; they can be advocates as well as direct agents of change and partner with educators and schools in this important goal. </p> <p>In closing, I appreciate the latest SoR reporting and I am simultaneously in awe of and concerned with the policy shifts that this work has helped to set in motion. But I also feel privileged (and frankly relieved) that I have been able to balance all this information with what I already knew about reading. Instead of focusing on what I couldn’t immediately help my son with (e.g., phonics), I focused on what I <em>could</em> do: selecting books on subjects he was interested in and discussing them with him in our home language, Spanish, with no set agenda, in a way that felt natural and fun to both of us. Some people think knowledge can be boring, dry, or too hard for young children. I will admit I have never held this belief; but to see those ideas disconfirmed with my own child has been extremely powerful. I wish all parents could feel this bit of relief and enjoyment as we continue to advocate for and support scientifically based reading instruction across the United States. </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/early-childhood-education" hreflang="en">Early Childhood Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/education-reporting" hreflang="en">Education Reporting</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/oral-language" hreflang="en">Oral Language</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/early-childhood-education" hreflang="und">Early Childhood Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/esther-quintero" hreflang="und">Esther Quintero</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6367&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="q02tkMvQFDpw8tEYDctoJ5KQCVbqSPSdiA13qsKcwBQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 14 Oct 2021 14:05:51 +0000 equintero 6367 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org What Literacy Can Do https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/what-literacy-can-do <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Literacy Can Do</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 07, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>"In today’s society, the child who doesn’t learn to read does not make it in life. If children don’t learn to read early enough, if they don’t learn to read with comprehension, if they don’t read fluently enough to read broadly and reflectively across all content areas, if they don’t learn to read effortlessly enough to render reading pleasurable, their chances for a fulfilling life—by whatever measure: academic success, financial stability, the ability to find satisfying work, personal autonomy, self-esteem—are practically nil."</em></p> <p>This is the first paragraph from a 1998 AFT resolution on beginning reading instruction. It was true then, and it’s true now. The quote above is harsh, but it is backed by a host of research evidence from eminent scholars, including <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading-difficult"><i>Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children</i></a> (National Research Council), <a href="https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf"><i>The National Reading Panel</i></a> (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), and <a href="https://naeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/NAEd-Reaping-the-Rewards-of-the-Reading-for-Understanding-Initiative.pdf"><i>Reaping the Rewards of Reading for Understanding</i></a> (National Academy of Education). It could also explain why the teaching of reading has so much passion around it; reading well is just that important.</p> <!--break--><p>Literacy literally opens the world to our students. Young children are eager to learn more about the world. They ask constant questions about what they have learned. They develop hypotheses about how the world works. And when they are provided with a stimulating environment, they begin to develop their oral language and literacy skills. But if students continually struggle with the reading process, especially as they age, they may become disaffected and school may become a nightmare for them. So the key to improving overall reading achievement in any school district is to provide effective assistance to the lowest-performing students. The initial step is to establish a system of early screening and diagnosis that can help schools identify struggling students at a much earlier stage than is typical in current practice (<a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/EarlyScreening.pdf">American Educator 2004</a>). The next step is to establish a comprehensive intervention system to help such students. So what would an effective reading intervention system look like? Effective teachers of reading have distilled the research to devise the following interventions:</p> <p>First, systems should be designed to be flexible, and should be able to accommodate the needs of students of varying ages and ability levels, with different areas of weakness.</p> <p>Second, the backbone of any effective system of reading instruction is a skilled and knowledgeable teaching force. All teachers must have access to the professional development that they need to design and execute a modified instructional plan for any student who has been identified as in danger of reading failure (<a href="https://www.a">Moats 2020</a>). According to the research, most reading difficulties in young beginning readers are rooted in inefficient word recognition skills (<a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/fall-2004/avoiding">Torgeson 2004</a>). Thus in the early grades most instructional plans for struggling students should focus on providing more systematic and intensive instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics. In addition, intensive instruction in reading comprehension, vocabulary, reading fluency, writing, language development, listening, and speaking skills should be available to students with reading difficulties.</p> <p>Research also demonstrates that, for comprehension, relevant knowledge is even more important than general reading ability (<a href="https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/spring-2006/how-knowledge-helps">Willingham 2006</a>; <a href="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3-euw1-ap-pe-ws4-cws-documents.ri-prod/9781138087279/18_Nagy_%26_Scott%2C_Vocabulary_Processes.pdf">Nagy and Scott 2000</a>). When high- and low-knowledge groups are divided into good and poor readers, those with little knowledge relevant to the text at hand perform relatively poorly, regardless of how well they read in general. In contrast—and this is important—the performance of the poor readers with higher background knowledge is generally better than that of the good readers with less background knowledge, and nearly as good as the good readers with lots of background knowledge. Prior knowledge about a topic is like “mental velcro” (<a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">Adams 2015</a>). The relevant knowledge gives the words of the text places to stick and make sense, thereby supporting comprehension and propelling the reading process forward. In one study, scientists monitored readers’ eye movements while reading about topics that were more versus less familiar to them. Given texts about less familiar topics, people’s reading slowed down and the progress of their eye movements was marked with more pausing and rereading. In other words, not only do readers with less topic-relevant background knowledge gain less from reading about that topic, less-knowledgeable readers must also expend more time and effort to arrive at what limited understanding they do gain (<a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders">Adams 2015</a>).</p> <p>Third, steps should be taken to ensure that additional instruction time is provided to any student who needs it. This might be in the form of extra attention from the classroom teacher, an additional instructional period with a reading specialist, a well-trained tutor, or a special education teacher—or access to summer school and before-, after-, or during-school tutoring programs.</p> <p>Fourth, instructional materials at all grades must address the needs of students who may be falling behind. Reading materials should be designed to reflect the research consensus, and should include technically sound assessment tools to diagnose problems, as well as instructional procedures and age appropriate materials to address areas of difficulty (see, for example, <a href="https://www.texasldcenter.org/lesson-plans">these resources</a> from the Texas Center for Learning Disabilities).</p> <p>Fifth, in cases where students don’t seem to be catching up—despite focused classroom instruction, extra instructional time, and the use of effective, research-based curriculum materials—students should be provided with additional diagnostic assessments as quickly as possible.</p> <p>And sixth, as indicated by the diagnostic assessment and/or the professional opinion of a skilled and knowledgeable teacher, struggling students should be given ready access to any special services that they need—i.e., students should be screened by a reading specialist, special education teacher, psychologist, English as a second language (ESL) teacher, speech pathologist, or an eye or hearing specialist, as necessary.</p> <p>Both the <a href="http://www.shankerinstitute.org">Albert Shanker Institute</a> and the <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-in">American Federation of Teachers</a> have a multitude of resources to help, going back several decades. For the ASI, we produced <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders"><i>Literacy Ladders</i></a>, a curated collection of articles on reading improvement, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/let%E2%80%99s-talk-foundations-oral-language-development-i">Let’s Talk: Oral Language Development</a>, a professional development resource for early education teachers and parents, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/lets-talk-pd-early-literacy-development">Let's Talk: Early Literacy Development</a>, an overview of research on the foundations for literacy and how they may be enhanced in early childhood, including applied information to help guide instructional improvement, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/preschool-curriculum"><i>Preschool Curriculum: What’s In It for Children and Teachers</i></a>, an accessible research synthesis of how and how much young children learn in the academic domains of oral language, literacy, mathematics, and science, and two videos <a href="https://youtu.be/Qj0Nm3YKpEY">The Early Language Gap is About More Than Words</a> and <a href="%22http">Let’s Talk</a>.</p> <p>The AFT has had several major issues on reading research, beginning in 1995, in its flagship <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/all-issues"><i>American Educator</i></a> magazine. The latest issue is from <a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020">Summer 2020</a>, which includes a review of some articles on reading instruction from previous years, “<a href="https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020/aeliteracy">On the Road to Literacy with American Educator</a>.” At the same time, AFT released a reissued publication, titled <a href="https://www.readingrockets.org/sites/default/files/teaching-reading-is-rocket-science-2020.pdf"><i>Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science, 2020: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do</i></a>, which reviews the reading research and describes the knowledge base that is essential for teacher candidates and practicing teachers to master if they are to be successful in teaching all children to read well. The AFT also offers professional development for teachers, <a href="https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/plcatalog2021.pdf">AFT Professional Learning Program for Educators</a>, including Beginning Reading Instruction, Reading Comprehension Instruction, Accessible Literacy Framework, and <i>Colorín Colorado</i> Introductory Workshop for ELL Educators. A list for additional literacy resources can be found <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">here</a>, which will be updated periodically.</p> <p>In conclusion, both an effective reading system and an effective reading intervention system provide us with a lot of hope. Many students learn to read easily in the first few years in school, and will need to turn their focus on building their vocabulary and content knowledge. If students who are struggling to read can be identified early enough, if they are provided with screenings and diagnostic assessments, if they are provided with the proper interventions—including attention to building vocabulary and content knowledge—if they can learn to read with comprehension, if they can learn to read well across all content areas, if they learn to read effortlessly enough to render reading pleasurable, they can achieve success in school and throughout their lives. They can also function as effective citizens, who can read and analyze ballot initiatives, legislation, and review documents presented to them when they serve on juries. As Marilyn Jager Adams said in <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/literacy-ladders"><i>Literacy Ladders</i></a>, the very purpose and promise of schooling is to prepare students for responsible adult lives—to be civically minded and informed, to prepare them for further education, and to find gainful work that allows them to grow and contribute to society. We agree.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/burnie-bond" hreflang="und">Burnie Bond</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6366&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="mhso1otS-t0tSxovoOepadU4ZKELNYjqSrIU_tv4t_Q"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 07 Oct 2021 13:00:00 +0000 bbond 6366 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Renewing Our Commitment To Reading https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/renewing-our-commitment-reading <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Renewing Our Commitment To Reading</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">October 04, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>“Follow the science” is a familiar refrain. The earliest science-backed advice at the beginning of the pandemic was “wash your hands.” As emerging science pointed to the efficacy of mask-wearing, and now vaccines, “follow the science” has become ubiquitous with every new way to protect ourselves. It is also common in discussions about learning to read. <a href="https://www.edweek.org/t">More</a> and <a href="https://www.educationnext.org/can-teaching-be-improved-by-law-twenty-states-measures-reading/">more</a> states are discerning what that means for their students, their teachers, and reading programs in general.</p> <p>For over 20 years, the Albert Shanker Institute, alongside of the <a href="https://www.aft.org/position/reading-instruction">American Federation of Teachers</a>, has been following the science with the goal of bridging research and practice. Our work on reading instruction has been guided by evidence collected in the National Research Council’s <a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6023/preventing-reading-difficulti"><i>Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children</i></a>, including reading program priorities of explicit, systematic phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, fluency, vocabulary development, content knowledge, and reading comprehension instruction. We have produced several publications curating this evidence, such as <a href="https://www.shankerinstitut">Literacy Ladders</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/let%E2%80%99s-talk-foundations-oral-language-develop">Let’s Talk: Oral Language Development</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.o">Let's Talk: Early Literacy Development</a>, <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/preschool-curriculum">Preschool Curriculum: What’s In It for Children and Teachers</a>, and videos such as <a href="https://youtu.be/Qj0Nm3YKpEY">The Early Language Gap is About More Than Words</a> and <a href="https://youtu.be/vdJhX38s-Jo">Let’s Talk</a> to stimulate public discussion about these issues.</p> <p>ASI is renewing our commitment to students, families, educators, schools, and allies in strengthening reading instruction.</p> <!--break--><p>We commit our ability to convene, promote, and support the science of reading instruction and expanding it in these key ways:</p> <ul> <li>We commit to look beyond early reading instruction. It is clear why a majority of the science of reading discussions are focused on our youngest readers. Yet students who continue to struggle with reading into middle school, high school, or even adult basic education programs deserve our best teaching and thinking on how to master their reading skills.</li> <li>We commit to bring a systemic/organizational approach to implementing the science of reading. The lack of comprehensive reading programs embedded in the science of reading is frequently still disconnected from classroom practice. This is often blamed on teacher education programs or teacher’s lack of knowledge, when the reality is likely much more complex than this. It has to do with entire state- and district-wide systems or longstanding organizational decisions that need to be taken into account. We must all reflect on our work and make adjustments to make room for reading instruction based on evidence.</li> <li>We commit to bring fresh perspectives, especially established or emerging science that is culturally specific and focuses on multicultural and multilingual assets that students and families bring to literacy learning, and voices in the research and practitioner community that deserve to be amplified. Following the science means we must not remain in one place. We must look for evidence of promising progress that we have overlooked it in the past.</li> </ul> <p>One of the <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/mission-statement">core commitments of the Albert Shanker Institute</a> is to “celebrate the power of ideas by expanding access to information, encouraging free and rigorous debate, and finding ways for intellectuals to test their ideas with practical action.” When it comes to what we know about the science of reading, our students deserve no less.</p> <p>- Mary Cathryn Ricker</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/language-and-reading" hreflang="en">Language and Reading</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/literacy" hreflang="en">literacy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/mary-cathryn-ricker" hreflang="und">Mary Cathryn Ricker</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6365&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="vDQW97Fbp38PsaY-0PnMcquvv6oHwMScAOgAfPbpw1Q"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Mon, 04 Oct 2021 15:49:45 +0000 bbond 6365 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org How To Support Teachers' Well-Being During COVID-19? Prioritize Relationships With Students. https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/how-support-teachers-well-being-during-covid-19-prioritize-relationships-students <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How To Support Teachers&#039; Well-Being During COVID-19? Prioritize Relationships With Students.</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/users/equintero" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">equintero</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 30, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Our guest authors today are Kristabel Stark, postdoctoral research associate at the University of Maryland, and Nathan Jones, associate professor of special education and education policy at Boston University. </em></p> <p>As schools around the country get ready to reopen this month, we’ve heard a lot of talk about masks, ventilation systems, tablets, and internet access. But in the midst of these logistical conversations, it’s been easy to overlook the thing that matters most for a successful return to school: teachers.  For teachers, factors associated with COVID-19 have challenged core dimensions of their work. As school gets underway this year, and building and district administrators strategize how to go about rebuilding again in the midst of a pandemic, our research suggests that one action is critical: prioritizing relationship building between teachers and students. We find that, of all of teachers’ daily activities, it is their work with students that is most strongly associated with positive emotions. And, this relationship actually intensified in the early months of the pandemic.</p> <p>We did not set out to write a COVID paper. In the fall of 2019, we set out to conduct a longitudinal study of teachers’ daily work experiences, including how they budgeted their time across activities and how their emotions varied within and across schooldays. In the study, nearly 250 teachers in two urban school districts completed time diary surveys in which they recorded how long they spent on various activities, who they spent their time with, and how they felt during these activities and interactions.  We wanted to understand how teachers’ emotions were associated with specific professional activities, and how those emotions changed over the course of a school year. But of course, we didn’t foresee that, midway through data collection, a global pandemic would emerge, temporarily transforming the nature of teachers’ work lives and professional experiences.</p> <!--break--><p>It’s easy to forget how quickly the ground shifted underneath schools. The teachers in our sample, like many others across the country, were told on a Thursday afternoon in March 2020 that school buildings would close on the following Monday. Educators, students, parents alike hoped that the closures would be temporary. Within a week, teachers were familiarizing themselves with online learning platforms, adapting instructional materials for circumstances they were not meant for, collaborating with colleagues and administrators to navigate greatly reduced instructional minutes, and, crucially, working to make sure that their students were safe and accounted for, as well as able to access remote instruction.</p> <p>Our <a href="https://wheelockpolicycenter.org/effective-teachers/teacher-time-use-and-affect-during-covid-19/">study results</a> speak to teachers’ resilience in the face of these changes and, ultimately, of the importance of teacher-student relationships. Prior to the pandemic, the single activity most strongly associated with positive emotional experiences was working with students. Interestingly, once the pandemic hit, the intensity of their positive emotions when interacting with students was actually higher <i>during</i> the weeks immediately following school building closures, than before. While teachers have been accused of not stepping up to the plate, we found that teachers in our study felt <i>more </i>determined to meet their students’ needs in the weeks following COVID-related nationwide school shutdowns.</p> <p>We’re not alone, or the first, in noting the urgency of teacher-student relationships in the wake of the pandemic. But while many researchers have focused on the importance of these relationships for students’ emotional wellbeing and academic progress, our research demonstrates that student-teacher relationships are just as important and meaningful for teachers.</p> <p>Why should we care so much about teachers’ emotions? Prior research demonstrates there is a connection between teachers’ emotional well-being and their willingness to stay in the profession; teacher shortages and teacher retention are longstanding issues that have only increased during the pandemic. But teachers don’t have unlimited emotional resources—and we don’t have unlimited teachers. While teachers in our study rose to the occasion, prioritizing and deeply investing in their students as the pandemic upended their work and their lives, we don’t know how long they were able to sustain this initial response.  Other <a href="https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1108-1.html">studies</a> have shown that, as the pandemic wore on, teachers across the country reported feeling demoralized and emotionally depleted. With ongoing teacher shortages, particularly in high-needs neighborhoods, which were hit particularly hard by the pandemic, we can’t afford to lose our teachers.</p> <p>So what can administrators do? Prioritize—and support—teachers’ efforts to build relationships with their students. They can limit the extent to which additional planning and administrative responsibilities are placed on teachers in efforts to respond to the pandemic. Such efforts alone will likely not be enough to combat the levels of stress and burnout teachers have experienced this year.  But in the midst of so many technical solutions to address the current situation – e.g., high dose tutoring, extended days, summer school –our research gently reminds administrators to make space for relationship building, which has always mattered but appears even more central in times of upheaval and uncertainty.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/coronavirus" hreflang="en">Coronavirus</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/education-research" hreflang="en">Education Research</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/school-climate" hreflang="en">School climate</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/teacher-retention" hreflang="en">Teacher Retention</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/school-culture" hreflang="und">School Culture</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/kristabel-stark" hreflang="en">Kristabel Stark</a></div> <div><a href="/nathan-d-jones" hreflang="und">Nathan D. Jones</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6363&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="EnQT1uTvq9Sd1a18YCh9UO9qQvm1VFZ5WErxheqlfTc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 30 Sep 2021 11:41:26 +0000 equintero 6363 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Teaching The Constitution As A Living Compact https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/teaching-constitution-living-compact <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Teaching The Constitution As A Living Compact</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 29, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our final guest author in this series is Randi Weingarten, president of the Albert Shanker Institute and the American Federation of Teachers. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>At a time when the future of American democracy hangs in the balance, how should we teach the U.S. Constitution?</p> <p>The Preamble to the Constitution, where the framers laid out its purposes, provides us with six words that help answer this question. The Constitution was intended, its authors wrote, “to form a more perfect union.” With this phrase, the framers made it clear that they did not conceive of the Constitution or the republic it established as a finished product, perfect and complete for all time, but as a work in progress, in need of continuous renewal and “re-founding.” By the design of the founders, the Constitution is a living compact, changing and evolving with “we the people” who authorize it and give it legitimacy anew with each successive generation of Americans.</p> <!--break--><p>It is this dynamic quality that enabled the American people to re-found a Constitution which had enslavement of African-Americans explicitly written into it, and to change that with the Civil War amendments—the 13th,14th and 15th that promise universal liberty and equality. It is this same quality that gave us the capacity to re-found a Constitution that permitted the most fundamental right of citizenship—the vote—initially restricted to white men of property, to be expanded.  Suffrage now is a freedom for all men and women over 18 years old, irrespective of class, race, religion and national origin. It is this essential quality that has made it possible for the American republic, with all of its strengths and all of its flaws, to become “more perfect” and endure for over two centuries.</p> <p>The battle for universal liberty and equality, and for citizenship for all Americans, is by no means done. Today we face the challenge of laws designed to suppress voting, to gerrymander election districts and to overturn democratic elections. As the framers understood, the struggle for a “more perfect union” is never finished. That is why a vision of a Constitution that can address the flaws of our republican institutions is so fundamental to American democracy.</p> <p>To teach the Constitution as a living compact, we should make it possible for our students, as the next generation of “we the people,” to not simply read or embrace the words, but also to interrogate them, to contextualize this document of fundamental law that is being handed down to them. Our students should be able to inquire not only into how the Constitution delivers on the democratic promise of “liberty and justice for all,” but also into how, in their judgment, it falls short of that promise. They should have the freedom and the right to discover a Constitution that they can make into their own vehicle for “forming a more perfect union.” As educators, we should conceive of our work as facilitating that process of inquiry and discovery on the part of our students. When I taught American history, civics and law to my inner-city and immigrant students in Clara Barton High School in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, this was how I understood my purpose: to introduce to my students a Constitution that they understood not simply for what it is now, but that they could see themselves in, envisioning how its words and their actions could together enable a “more perfect union.” </p> <p>Some may object that the mission of educators is to inculcate in students an allegiance to the political institutions and principles they will inherit, starting with the Constitution. I have devoted my adult life as an educator, a unionist and a lawyer to advocating and advancing the core democratic principles of liberty, equality, justice and solidarity, and in my dedication to these principles and to the ways in which they are embodied in the Constitution, I cede to no one. But I do not believe that the work of educators is to demand or dictate that  students adopt as their own our ideas—even the ones we know are essential such as liberty, equality, justice and solidarity. Rather, our vocation is—as John Dewey would often put it—to teach students how to think, not what to think. It is precisely my faith in democracy that leads me to conclude that a person with the ability to reason logically and think critically will, far more often than not, embrace fundamental democratic principles and institutions. They will be able to discern fact from propaganda. They will be able to reject misinformation and distortion. I was never afraid of my students' pursuit of hard questions, or uncomfortable truths. My goal was to have my students engage the Constitution in ways that led them to think critically about its history and meaning and to reason with each other about its purpose and its future.</p> <p>These are perilous times for American democracy. The January 6th insurrection and its aftermath have put the dangers we face in dramatic reveal. A rededication to teaching a Constitution that seeks to build on our strengths and redress our weaknesses in order for “we the people”  “to form a more perfect union” is important for American educators.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/randi-weingarten" hreflang="und">Randi Weingarten</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6361&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="Cy5k8ZesO_X75UBqd9R6yeiYHfsQGnTWeTYzv2Ccatc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Wed, 29 Sep 2021 15:14:36 +0000 bbond 6361 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Federal Policy And Tribal Sovereignty https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/federal-policy-and-tribal-sovereignty <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Federal Policy And Tribal Sovereignty</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 16, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is Jordann Lankford-Forster. an educator and an IEFA instructional coach for Great Falls Public Schools in Great Falls, Montana. Jordann is A’aniiih and Anishinaabe, and her A’aniiih name is Bright Trail Woman. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>American Indian Federal policy has historically played a significant role in tribal sovereignty. This is always a difficult subject to explain because it is so multifaceted. Prior to colonization, tribal sovereignty was exercised absolutely, with tribes interacting on a government-to-government basis, and under total self-sufficiency. Today, major contributing factors to achieving total sovereignty include location, access to resources, and relationship status with the Federal Government. It is important to remember that tribal sovereignty—or the ability to remain separate and independent—looks different for every tribe. As (the 574) tribes and individual American Indians navigate their future, the Constitution is continually referenced as a means to gain a strong foothold within the country that we now know as the United States of America. </p> <p>I teach in a small district in Great Falls, Montana. Our student population is 16.5 percent American Indian and 44 different tribes are represented within our school system. My district is considered “urban” because it is in a city rather than located on a reservation. In 1972 the Montana Constitution was revised to recognize the “distinct and unique cultural heritage of American Indians”  and to be “committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity.” And, as a district, we are continually trying to ensure we honor that. At times, it is difficult for my students because they do not always feel like they have a sense of identity within this country.</p> <!--break--><p><strong>Mixed Messages</strong></p> <p>Now more than ever students are bombarded with information on social media platforms and watch political leaders and their parents alike argue over various social issues. The need for a strong foundation is vital for student success and when everyone around you seems to be divided, it is difficult to know where to turn. The goal of an educator should <em>never</em> be, “I want to teach my students to think exactly as I do.” The goal should <em>always</em> be, “I want my students to evaluate information and think critically for themselves.” The primary source document we know as the Constitution does exactly that. It is more than teaching them right from wrong. I want my students to know the Constitution and apply it when they find themselves buried, without a sense of direction. </p> <p>Teaching our students the Constitution is essentially teaching them justice, and if you know your rights have been infringed upon, you will understand how to take the proper steps to correct your circumstance. I have a simplified version of all 27 Amendments on my classroom wall, which we review daily. </p> <p>Every morning I ask my excited learners to locate a credible news source and report on a “current event.” After they read and summarize their article, we talk about how they feel about it. We refer to the Amendments often, and discuss how some of them may apply. The big takeaway here is that they are listening to each others’ opinions, and finding solid ground on their own. </p> <p><strong>Timeline Activity </strong></p> <p>The most effective way to incite learning is to disrupt the learner’s schema. In other words, take what they believe to be true and present information that startles world views, usually leading to amazing conversations. An exercise I do with my students and the educators I instructionally coach is what I call the “timeline activity.”</p> <ul> <li>First, I make a list of significant events (not including dates) concerning American Indian Federal policy and cut each one into its own strip of paper. </li> <li>Second, I mix them up and divide the students into groups.</li> <li>Then I ask the groups to discuss and place the strips of paper containing a significant event in the order that they believe the events occurred. </li> <li>It is important to put identifying makers among the events so that students have some frame of reference. (for example, Lewis and Clark Expedition, World War I, World War 2, etc.).</li> <li>After the groups believe they have the correct order, or have tried their best, read them the correct order of events.</li> </ul> <p>This is where it gets interesting. Students and staff alike are shocked to understand the historical timeline of Federal Indian Policy within the United States. For instance, when they learn that American Indians officially became citizens in 1924 under the Snider Act but did not receive the freedom of religion until 1978, a new perspective is introduced. I always find myself asking, “<em>Is this Constitutional?”</em></p> <p><strong>We the People</strong></p> <p>The purpose of the previous activity is not to incite blame, shame, or guilt. The purpose of this activity is to remind others that not all Americans have experienced the same rights guaranteed by the Constitution and, thus, may not have experienced all of the same success that we see in the mainstream today. As soon as we come to that realization we can better understand each other, and ourselves. The standard that has been set by the false Facebook “warrior” culture could potentially be a distant memory when we stop trying to be <em>right</em>, and begin to actually <em>listen</em>.</p> <p>The Constitution is a very freeing document and once students are acquainted with it, they understand their personal rights, and their self worth as an American.  The Constitution has not been applied perfectly in the past but, I believe we are moving in the right direction when it comes to tribal sovereignty. This document, when taken into account, provides personal autonomy and self-actualization.  It all begins with understanding your rights and how the Constitution can be used to serve your people. I want my students to be able to walk anywhere, and fear nothing.</p> <p><strong>Additional Reading Materials</strong></p> <p>Lopach, J.J., Brown, M.J., &amp; Clow, R.L. (1990). <em>Tribal Government Today</em>. (2nd ed.). Boulder: University of Press Colorado.</p> <p>Montana Office of Public Instruction. (2021). “<em>Indian Education For All</em>.”  <a href="https://opi.mt.gov/Educators/Teaching-Learning/Indian-Education-for-All">https://opi.mt.gov/Educators/Teaching-Learning/Indian-Education-for-All</a></p> <p>Prucha, F.P. (2000). <em>Documents of United Sates Indian Policy.</em> (3rd ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. </p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civil-rights" hreflang="en">Civil Rights</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/jordann-lankford-forster-bright-trail-woman" hreflang="en">Jordann Lankford-Forster (Bright Trail Woman)</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6359&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="BksdL-538z4Y_wm6yUqqHNwXGieZlpmjuyPxBzkibaQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Thu, 16 Sep 2021 13:43:20 +0000 bbond 6359 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Why Teach The Constitution? https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/why-teach-constitution <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why Teach The Constitution?</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 15, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is Zeph Capo, a public school science teacher, president of the Texas AFT, and member of the Shanker Institute Board of Directors. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>Collective bargaining is the cornerstone on which we built the middle-class. As a labor leader, it is the best tool used by workers to earn a seat at the table as equals with their employer. It is also how we develop a contract outlining one another’s roles, rights, and responsibilities in the workplace. As an educator, I ask: <em><strong>How do we expect workers to understand the process and power of collective bargaining if they don’t understand the power and process of governance as outlined in our Constitution?</strong></em></p> <p>I believe teaching the Constitution is vital, because it is the premier collectively-bargained contract present in our lives. The rights, responsibilities, and regulations set forth in the Constitution serve as the bedrock on which we develop all other aspects of the agreements governing the many facets of our society.</p> <!--break--><p>Our Constitution details the contract between the government and the governed. Like any contract, the Constitution outlines both your rights and responsibilities as a party to the agreement. In the midst of the pandemic, some citizens denounce masking policies that they claim violate their rights. They often fail to remember or acknowledge that we give up some individual freedoms when we give our consent to be governed. The consent to be governed is a trade-off of personal liberties for the greater collective ability of the government to protect life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all citizens. It is the very essence of the social contract we bargained collectively as a nation more than 200 years ago.</p> <p>Our system of government, and challenge thereunto, is vested in the ballot box. Our belief in popular sovereignty and the peaceful transition of power has kept our government stable for centuries. Sadly, when our citizenry is less familiar with their role in the governance process, or do not exercise their right to vote and be active participants in our society, we suffer governments beholden only to the loud minority who <em>do</em> participate in the process.</p> <p>Laws such as the recent Texas voter suppression act compromise our social contract and endanger future peaceful transitions of power by fundamentally altering the premise that we are all created equal with equal rights and responsibilities. Such acts remind us that our past history of denying basic constitutional rights to many of our citizens is not, in fact, history.  Students who understand the Constitution are in a better place to challenge governments that create unjust laws with the purpose of consolidating power, rather than to govern justly. This is exactly why Texas AFT has joined with other organizations who share our values of equality to challenge the constitutionality of Texas’ most recent voter suppression law.</p> <p>Lastly, teaching the Constitution and other similar primary source documents is our best defense against the corrosive impact of fake news in our society. Truth and fact become elusive when we are bombarded with information on a regular basis. Understanding how to use primary source documents, such as the Constitution, allows for the greatest level of transparency and the ability for students to distinguish between the varying quality of information sources. Securing our rights requires that we constantly demand them. Understanding and enforcing our contract is how we do so. Right now, our country is in need of a new wave of 21st century constitutional scholars to get the job done. Let’s do our part as educators to develop them.</p> <p><em>Thank you to Zaakir Tameez, Nicole Hill and Andrew Dewey for your thoughts on this topic. </em></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/democracy" hreflang="en">Democracy</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/author/zeph-capo" hreflang="und">Zeph Capo</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6356&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="PeeZWjKfwPqdJPFCA5LWG3FakAWZcBuDjxBO7dBxXR4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Wed, 15 Sep 2021 22:40:14 +0000 bbond 6356 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org Teaching Students The Textualist Interpretation Of Law https://www.shankerinstitute.org/blog/teaching-students-textualist-interpretation-law <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Teaching Students The Textualist Interpretation Of Law</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/156" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">bbond</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">September 14, 2021</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--blog.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>In honor of Constitution Day (September 17th), this blog series invites teachers and leaders in the field of civics and democracy education to address the question: Why is it important to teach the Constitution? Our guest author today is David Said, a social studies teacher at Athens High School in Troy, Michigan. Other posts in this series can be found <a href="https://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/constitution-day-2021-blog-series">here</a>.</em></p> <p>In a fairly recent court case, Bostock v. Clayton County (2020), the US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that sex discrimination does cover gay and transgender individuals under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. One of the more surprising aspects of this case was that the majority opinion was delivered by associate justice Neil Gorsuch. Appointed by President Trump to replace the late Antonin Scalia, most assumed he would tow the line of conservative jurisprudence. In joining with Chief Justice John Roberts and all three of the court<span dir="RTL">’</span>s liberal leaning justices, Gorsuch<span dir="RTL">’</span>s majority decision showcased a level of judicial independence that is important for the maintaining the integrity of this important institution. </p> <p>A key part of Gorsuch<span dir="RTL">’</span>s judicial philosophy is grounded in a concept called <span dir="RTL">“</span>textualism.” Simply put, textualism is an interpretation of law in which the words of the legal text are analyzed through the lens of their normal meaning. It is quite common for Justices to include authors’ intent, historical examples, and most importantly precedence as factors when deciding a case that comes before the Supreme Court. Textualism appears to simplify this process altogether by requiring one to truly dig deep into the meaning of words and phrase. In the Bostock case, the word that Gorsuch zeroed in on was <span dir="RTL">“</span>sex” within Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Discriminating against an individual or group because of their sex could reasonably be interpreted to include gender as well as sexual orientation. The six Justices in the majority agreed with that preceding sentence. Conversely, the Justices in the minority were quick to point out that members of the legislative branch were likely not thinking of anything beyond men or women in the year 1964.</p> <!--break--><p><strong>How can this story and the use of textualism help our students better understand the C</strong><strong>onstitution?</strong></p> <p>First, any teacher would be quick to point the importance of literacy in content area instruction. Being a literate individual not only requires comprehension skills, but also the ability to critically decipher the meaning of words or phrases within a larger piece of text. The work of textualism is the work of all readers who seek solutions about critical issues in their society. It is vital, especially when teaching about the Supreme Court, to avoid the partisanship that is more easily applicable to the Legislative and Executive branches of government. Especially when under the scrutiny of the confirmation process, all Justices seek to portray themselves and stewards of the law, impartial, and unbiased in their decision making. Likewise, when reading our Constitution, our students should not be reading this document as a Democrat or Republican. Rather they, like our Justices, should be reading them as learners, thinkers, and one could argue as textualists.</p> <p>Like in the Bostock case, textualism is especially particularly applicable to the issues of civil rights. For example, in my class, I have had students look at the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. The clause itself stating, <span dir="RTL">“</span>nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”When I ask students who has been most positively impacted by this clause, most are quick to point out African Americans. I follow up with asking who has been left out? Students respond with other marginalized groups and people of color.  A discussion of the failure of Reconstruction and beginnings of Jim Crow will be coming soon enough. But in the moment, I ask my students to put themselves in the shoes of a Supreme Court Justice, putting bias aside as much as possible. Using the words of the clause alone, should the equal protection clause include every segment of the American population? This begins our journey into the mind of an interpreter of law, a textualist.</p> <p>My advice when reading any part of the Constitution, is to teach students to put the text first. The ability to think critically requires all of us to put partisanship aside. For students to debate political issues amongst themselves, they must first attain the vital skill of having dialogue with the text of our founding document. This is the means of truly developing critical thinkers who are civic minded. I ask my fellow teachers to have students explore other areas of our Constitution. Have them analyze the ordinary meanings of as many words as possible. Maybe a future Justice in your classroom will identify a new pathway for imparting our Constitution<span dir="RTL">’</span>s values onto a new generation of leaders?</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-topics--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-topics.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-topics field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog Topics</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/blogtopics/civic-education" hreflang="en">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-issues-areas--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-issues-areas.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-issues-areas field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Issues Areas</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/k-12-education" hreflang="und">K-12 Education</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/issue-areas/civic-education" hreflang="und">Civic Education</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-author--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-author.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig x field--field-author.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <div><a href="/david-said" hreflang="en">David Said</a></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/shanker/templates/field/field--field-author.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-blog--blog.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-blog.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--comment-node-blog.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-blog field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=6357&amp;2=comment_node_blog&amp;3=comment_node_blog" token="LxCD_XMUCOiQK-2dYv2JZ2wmnCJ04hnoXeNL9N3k2ts"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Tue, 14 Sep 2021 13:39:08 +0000 bbond 6357 at https://www.shankerinstitute.org