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Causality Rules Everything Around Me

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CREAM :-) Did anyone else get this? In education, the "unobserved counterfactual" can sometimes cause feelings of inadequacy. I remember reading SES applicatons and the provider would state as their SBR that student growth on an intervention was (for example), half a year. Never mind that there wasn't a comparison group for the counterfactual, but even without that, I know that half a years growth is what I would expect from their regular instruction. I expect an intervention to produce MORE significant growth than regular instruction!

You left out the problem of getting the causality backwards.

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